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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 2005  (4)
  • Cytomegalovirus
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  • 2005  (4)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2005, Vol.243(7), pp.671-676
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis frequently occurs in severely naturally and iatrogenically immunocompromised patients. It has been shown that the immune-privileged retina is a major site of HCMV infection in AIDS patients. It is conceivable either that during the immunosuppression HCMV infection reactivates in various other organs viremically affecting the retina or that HCMV persisting in the retina may locally reactivate and result in HCMV retinitis. As there is still controversy about the sites of HCMV latency and persistence we investigated 75 eyes of HIV-seronegative patients undergoing enucleation due to a variety of malignant and non-viral benign ophthalmic disorders for the retinal presence of HCMV antigen and DNA. None of the analyzed patients had symptoms of HCMV retinitis. Immunohistologic staining as well as Taq Man DNA PCR analysis showed all samples to be free of HCMV. Our data suggest that the human eye is rather unlikely to be a site of productive or latent HCMV persistence.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus -- Physiology ; Cytomegalovirus Retinitis -- Virology ; Retina -- Virology ; Virus Latency -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 0721-832X
    E-ISSN: 1435-702X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2005, Vol.326(2), pp.395-401
    Description: In a model of human neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines persistently infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) we previously showed that persistent HCMV infection is associated with an increased malignant phenotype, enhanced drug resistance, and invasive properties. To gain insights into the mechanisms of increased malignancy we analyzed the global changes in cellular gene expression induced by persistent HCMV infection of human neuroblastoma cells by use of high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (HG-U133A, Affymetrix) and RT-PCR. Comparing the gene expression of different NB cell lines with persistently infected cell sub-lines revealed 11 host cell genes regulated in a similar manner throughout all infected samples. Nine of these 11 genes may contribute to the previously observed changes in malignant phenotype of persistently HCMV infected NB cells by influencing invasive growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and proliferation. Thus, this work provides the basis for further functional studies.
    Keywords: Neuroblastoma ; Human Cytomegalovirus ; Microarray Analysis ; Oncomodulation ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    E-ISSN: 1090-2104
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, September 2005, Vol.46(9), pp.3451-7
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication depends on different cellular pathways, including histone acetylation and extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk 1/2). In the present study, the influence of therapeutic valproic acid (VPA) concentrations was investigated on HCMV replication in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. HCMV antigen expression and replication were detected by immunostaining, real-time RT-PCR, and determination of virus titers. Histone acetylation and Erk 1/2 phosphorylation were detected by Western blot. Pretreatment with VPA 〈 or =1 mM enhanced HCMV antigen expression and replication by up to ninefold. In addition to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, VPA stimulated Erk 1/2 phosphorylation in RPE cells. Investigation of six VPA derivatives revealed that S-2-pentyl-4-pentynoic acid was the only derivative that induced histone hyperacetylation, indicating HDAC inhibition, in the observed concentrations 〈 or =1 mM and that increased HCMV antigen expression. Other derivatives did not enhance HCMV replication in the tested concentrations, although some were found to induce Erk 1/2 phosphorylation. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 inhibited VPA-induced Erk 1/2 phosphorylation but did not affect VPA-induced increased HCMV replication. In addition, the structurally nonrelated HDACI trichostatin A enhanced HCMV replication but did not affect Erk 1/2 phosphorylation in RPE cells. The data demonstrate that VPA stimulates HCMV replication by HDAC inhibition independent of Erk 1/2 phosphorylation in therapeutic concentrations in RPE cells. Therefore, patients at risk of HCMV retinitis who are treated with VPA or other HDAC inhibitors should be carefully monitored.
    Keywords: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors ; Cytomegalovirus -- Physiology ; Enzyme Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Pigment Epithelium of Eye -- Virology ; Valproic Acid -- Pharmacology ; Virus Replication -- Drug Effects
    ISSN: 0146-0404
    E-ISSN: 15525783
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Medicinal Research Reviews, March 2005, Vol.25(2), pp.167-185
    Description: It has been known for a long time that cytomegalovirus (CMV) has evolved mechanisms that allow the escape from the host immune surveillance. In the past, many efforts have been done to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this virus‐mediated immune escape and thus virus persistence. However, it is unknown, whether CMV may also impair immune responses directed against tumor cells. This might have severe consequences on tumor progression and may explain the growing evidence for CMV‐mediated oncomodulation. This review summarizes recent work on CMV‐mediated immune escape mechanisms of tumor cells and oncomodulation and proposes novel aspects that may be important for understanding the CMV‐associated tumor progression. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus Hcmv ; Oncomodulation ; Tumor ; Dna‐Virus ; Apoptosis ; Angiogenesis
    ISSN: 0198-6325
    E-ISSN: 1098-1128
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