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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 2007  (15)
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  • 2007  (15)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(4), pp.181-190
    Description: Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 are discussed. This first part concentrates on epidemiologic concerns and virulence determinants. H5N1 spread over the world and caused a series of fowl pest outbreaks. Significant human-to-human transmissions have not been observed yet. Mutations that make the virus more compatible with human-to-human transmission may occur at any time. Nevertheless, no one can currently predict with certainty whether H5N1 will become a human pandemic virus.
    Keywords: Avian Influenza;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(4), pp.191-201
    Description: Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 are discussed. The second part focuses on experimental and clinical results, which give insights in the pathogenic mechanisms of H5N1 infection in humans. H5N1 is poorly transmitted to humans. However, H5N1-induced disease is very severe. More information on the role entry barriers, H5N1 target cells and on H5N1-induced modulation of the host immune response is needed to learn more about the determinants of H5N1 pathogenicity.
    Keywords: Avian Influenza;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(4), pp.203-212
    Description: Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 as well as treatment options are discussed. The third part discusses therapeutic options. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the most promising agents despite uncertainty about efficacy. Dosage increase, prolonged treatment or combination therapies may increase treatment efficacy and/or inhibit resistance formation. Immune system dysregulation contributes to H5N1 disease. Although current evidence does not support the use of anti-inflammatory drugs beneficial effects cannot be excluded at later disease stages.
    Keywords: Antiviral Agents ; Avian Influenza;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: FEBS Letters, 03 April 2007, Vol.581(7), pp.1317-1322
    Description: Treatment of transformed cells from leukemia or solid tumors with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) was shown to increase their sensitivity to NK cell lysis. In this study, treatment of IL-2-activated NK cells with HDACi including suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and valproic acid was studied. Both drugs at therapeutic concentrations inhibited NK cell cytotoxicity on human leukemic cells. This inhibition was associated with decreased expression and function of NK cell activating receptors NKp46 and NKp30 as well as impaired granule exocytosis. NFκB activation in IL-2-activated NK cells was inhibited by both HDACi. Pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activity resulted in similar effects on NK cell activity like those observed for HDACi. These results demonstrate for the first time that HDACi prevent NK cytotoxicity by downregulation of NK cell activating receptors probably through the inhibition of NFκB activation.
    Keywords: Cytotoxicity ; Nk Cells ; Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors ; Nk Cell Activating and Inhibitory Receptors ; Nuclear Factor Kappa B ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    E-ISSN: 1873-3468
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2007, Vol. 60(5), pp.981-986
    Description: OBJECTIVES: West Nile virus (WNV) infection causes severe meningitis and encephalitis in a subset of patients. WNV-induced apoptosis has been suggested to contribute to WNV pathogenesis. Tetracyclines exert antiviral effects against HIV and inhibit apoptosis in different models of neuronal disease. Here, the effects of the tetracyclines minocycline, demeclocycline and chlortetracycline were observed on WNV replication and WNV-induced apoptosis in different human CNS-derived cell types (primary human brain neurons, primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells and T98G human glioma cell line). METHODS: WNV replication was studied by cytopathic effects and virus yield reduction assay. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was investigated by immunostaining for activated caspase 3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Expression and phosphorylation of cellular proteins were examined by western blot. RESULTS: Minocycline exerted the strongest anti-WNV activity. Non-toxic minocycline concentrations that can be achieved in human tissues significantly reduced WNV titres in all cell types tested. Minocycline inhibited WNV-induced apoptosis and suppressed virus-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its target c-jun. The JNK inhibitor L-JNKi exerted similar effects to minocycline. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that minocycline-induced inhibition of JNK activation contributes to minocycline-induced inhibition of WNV replication and WNV-induced apoptosis. Minocycline is a clinically available, inexpensive and generally very well-tolerated drug. It could be readily evaluated for the treatment of humans with serious WNV infection.
    Keywords: Antiviral Therapy ; Brain ; Central Nervous System ; Antibiotic ; Encephalitis
    ISSN: 0305-7453
    E-ISSN: 1460-2091
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC Microbiology, May 29, 2007, Vol.7(49), p.49
    Description: Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection can cause severe meningitis and encephalitis in humans. Apoptosis was recently shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we used WNV-infected glioma cells to study WNV-replication and WNV-induced apoptosis in human brain-derived cells. Results T98G cells are highly permissive for lytic WNV-infection as demonstrated by the production of infectious virus titre and the development of a characteristic cytopathic effect. WNV replication decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis as indicated by the activation of the effector caspase-3, the initiator caspases-8 and -9, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Truncation of BID indicated cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Inhibition of the caspases-8 or -9 inhibited PARP cleavage, demonstrating that both caspases are involved in WNV-induced apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibition prevented WNV-induced apoptosis without affecting virus replication. Conclusion We found that WNV infection induces cell death in the brain-derived tumour cell line T98G by apoptosis under involvement of constituents of the extrinsic as well as the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Our results illuminate the molecular mechanism of WNV-induced neural cell death.
    Keywords: Apoptosis -- Research ; Apoptosis -- Physiological Aspects ; West Nile Fever -- Research ; West Nile Fever -- Prevention ; West Nile Fever -- Complications And Side Effects
    ISSN: 1471-2180
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, January 2007, Vol.21(1), pp.81-7
    Description: Ribavirin is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The virological response after ribavirin treatment appears to be insufficient to fully explain ribavirin-induced beneficial effects. Angiogenesis plays a pathogenic role in HCV-induced liver damage. Here, we investigated the influence of therapeutic ribavirin concentrations on angiogenesis. Ribavirin inhibited endothelial cell tube formation in vitro and vessel formation in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay in vivo. Ribavirin inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which causes depletion of cellular GTP and in turn reduction of cellular tetrahydrobiopterin levels. The availability of tetrahydrobiopterin limits NO production by endothelial NO synthase. Ribavirin reduced levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (as revealed by HPLC), NO (as revealed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy), and cGMP (as revealed by RIA) in endothelial cells. Addition of tetrahydrobiopterin or NO prevented ribavirin-induced tube formation inhibition. In conclusion, angiogenesis inhibition by ribavirin has not been described before. This inhibition may contribute to ribavirin-induced pharmacological effects including adverse events.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Biopterin -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Neovascularization, Pathologic -- Prevention & Control ; Ribavirin -- Pharmacology
    ISSN: 08926638
    E-ISSN: 1530-6860
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(4), pp.213-225
    Description: Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 are discussed. This fourth part focuses on vaccine development. Several phase I clinical studies with vaccines against H5 viruses have demonstrated limited efficacy compared to seasonal influenza vaccines. To induce protective immunity two immunisations with increased amounts of H5N1 vaccine were required. Novel vaccination strategies that are egg- and adjuvant-independent, broadly cross-reactive and long-lasting are highly desirable.
    Keywords: Vaccines ; Avian Influenza;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMC Microbiology, 01 May 2007, Vol.7(1), p.49
    Description: Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection can cause severe meningitis and encephalitis in humans. Apoptosis was recently shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we used WNV-infected glioma cells to study WNV-replication and WNV-induced apoptosis in human brain-derived cells. Results T98G cells are highly permissive for lytic WNV-infection as demonstrated by the production of infectious virus titre and the development of a characteristic cytopathic effect. WNV replication decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis as indicated by the activation of the effector caspase-3, the initiator caspases-8 and -9, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Truncation of BID indicated cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Inhibition of the caspases-8 or -9 inhibited PARP cleavage, demonstrating that both caspases are involved in WNV-induced apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibition prevented WNV-induced apoptosis without affecting virus replication. Conclusion We found that WNV infection induces cell death in the brain-derived tumour cell line T98G by apoptosis under involvement of constituents of the extrinsic as well as the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Our results illuminate the molecular mechanism of WNV-induced neural cell death.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1471-2180
    E-ISSN: 1471-2180
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Virology, 2007, Vol.362(1), pp.26-37
    Description: Infection with the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) induces an atypical pulmonary disease with a high lethality rate. Although the initial SARS epidemic was contained, sporadic outbreaks of the disease still occur, suggesting a continuous need for a vaccine against this virus. We therefore explored exosome-based vaccines containing the spike S proteins of SARS-CoV. S-containing exosomes were obtained by replacing the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the S protein by those of VSV-G. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the S-containing exosomes were tested in mice and compared to an adenoviral vector vaccine expressing the S protein. Both, S-containing exosomes and the adenoviral vector vaccine induced neutralizing antibody titers. After priming with the SARS-S exosomal vaccine and boosting with the adenoviral vector the neutralizing antibody titers exceeded those observed in the convalescent serum of a SARS patient. Both approaches were effective in a SARS-S-expressing tumor challenge model and thus warrant further investigation.
    Keywords: Sars-Cov ; S Spike ; Vaccine ; Exosome ; Adenoviral Vector ; Biology
    ISSN: 0042-6822
    E-ISSN: 1096-0341
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