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  • 1
    In: Water Resources Research, March 2007, Vol.43(3), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: Large‐scale models of transient flow processes in the unsaturated zone require, in general, upscaling of the flow problem in order to capture the impact of heterogeneities on a small scale, which cannot be resolved by the model. Effective parameters for the upscaled models are often derived from second‐order stochastic properties of the parameter fields. Such properties are good quantifications for parameter fields, which are multi‐Gaussian. However, the structure of soil does rarely resemble these kinds of fields. The non‐multi‐Gaussian field properties can lead to strong discrepancies between predictions of upscaled models and the averaged real flow process. In particular, the connected paths of parameter ranges of the medium are important features, which are usually not taken into account in stochastic approaches. They are determined here by the Euler number of one‐cut indicator fields. Methods to predict effective parameters are needed that incorporate this type of information. We discuss different simple and fast approaches for estimating the effective parameter for upscaled models of slow transient flow processes in the unsaturated zone, where connected paths of the material may be taken into account. Upscaled models are derived with the assumption of capillary equilibrium. The effective parameters are calculated using effective media approaches. We also discuss the limits of the applicability of these methods.
    Keywords: Richards Equation ; Unsaturated Flow ; Upscaling
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, June 2007, Vol.1106, pp.262-71
    Description: The isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from primary tissue is hampered by the limited selectivity of available markers. So far, CD271 is one of the most specific markers for bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. In search of additional markers, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with specificity for immature cells were screened by flow cytometry for their specific reactivity with the rare CD271(+) population. The recognized CD271(+) populations were fractionated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and the clonogenic capacity of the sorted cells was analyzed for their ability to give rise to CFU-F. The results showed that only the CD271(bright) but not the CD271(dim) population contained CFU-F. Two-color flow cytometry analysis revealed that only the CD271(bright) population was positive for the established MSC markers CD10, CD13, CD73, and CD105. In addition, a variety of mAbs specific for novel and partially unknown antigens selectively recognized the CD271(bright) population but no other BM cells. The new MSC-specific molecules included the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (CD140b), HER-2/erbB2 (CD340), frizzled-9 (CD349), the recently described W8B2 antigen, as well as cell-surface antigens defined by the antibodies W1C3, W3D5, W4A5, W5C4, W5C5, W7C6, 9A3, 58B1, F9-3C2F1, and HEK-3D6. In conclusion, the described markers are suitable for the prospective isolation of highly purified BM-MSC. These MSC may be used as an improved starting population for transplantation in diseases like osteogenesis imperfecta, cartilage repair, and myocardial infarction.
    Keywords: Cell Culture Techniques -- Methods ; Cell Separation -- Methods ; Mesenchymal Stem Cells -- Cytology
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 3
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, June 2007, Vol.1106(1), pp.262-271
    Description: :  The isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from primary tissue is hampered by the limited selectivity of available markers. So far, CD271 is one of the most specific markers for bone marrow (BM)‐derived MSC. In search of additional markers, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with specificity for immature cells were screened by flow cytometry for their specific reactivity with the rare CD271+ population. The recognized CD271+ populations were fractionated by fluorescence‐activated cell sorting and the clonogenic capacity of the sorted cells was analyzed for their ability to give rise to CFU‐F. The results showed that only the CD271bright but not the CD271dim population contained CFU‐F. Two‐color flow cytometry analysis revealed that only the CD271bright population was positive for the established MSC markers CD10, CD13, CD73, and CD105. In addition, a variety of mAbs specific for novel and partially unknown antigens selectively recognized the CD271bright population but no other BM cells. The new MSC‐specific molecules included the platelet‐derived growth factor receptor‐β (CD140b), HER‐2/erbB2 (CD340), frizzled‐9 (CD349), the recently described W8B2 antigen, as well as cell‐surface antigens defined by the antibodies W1C3, W3D5, W4A5, W5C4, W5C5, W7C6, 9A3, 58B1, F9‐3C2F1, and HEK‐3D6. In conclusion, the described markers are suitable for the prospective isolation of highly purified BM‐MSC. These MSC may be used as an improved starting population for transplantation in diseases like osteogenesis imperfecta, cartilage repair, and myocardial infarction.
    Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells ; Bone Marrow ; Msc ; Prospective Isolation
    ISBN: 1573316768
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    E-ISSN: 1749-6632
    E-ISSN: 19306547
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