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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Biochemical journal, 01 January 2009, Vol.417(1), pp.235-46
    Description: The heterodimeric HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1 is a transcriptional master regulator of several genes involved in mammalian oxygen homoeostasis. Besides the well described regulation of the HIF-1alpha subunit via hydroxylation-mediated protein stability in hypoxia, there are several indications of an additional translational control of the HIF-1alpha mRNA, especially after growth factor stimulation. We identified an interaction of CPEB (cytoplasmic polyadenylation-element-binding protein) 1 and CPEB2 with the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of HIF-1alpha mRNA. Overexpression of CPEB1 and CPEB2 affected HIF-1alpha protein levels mediated by the 3'-UTR of HIF-1alpha mRNA. Stimulation of neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells with insulin and thus activation of endogenous CPEBs increased the expression of a luciferase reporter gene fused to the 3'-UTR of HIF-1alpha as well as endogenous HIF-1alpha protein levels. This could be abrogated by treating the cells with CPEB1 or CPEB2 siRNAs (short interfering RNAs). Injection of HIF-1alpha cRNA into Xenopus oocytes verified the elongation of the poly(A)+ (polyadenylated) tail by cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Thus CPEB1 and CPEB2 are involved in the regulation of HIF-1alpha following insulin stimulation.
    Keywords: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, Alpha Subunit -- Genetics ; RNA, Messenger -- Metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins -- Metabolism ; Transcription Factors -- Metabolism ; Mrna Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 02646021
    E-ISSN: 1470-8728
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary Science Reviews, 2009, Vol.28(27), pp.3401-3413
    Description: This study describes the origin and age of a body of massive ground ice exposed in the headwall of a thaw slump in the Red Creek valley, central Yukon, Canada. The site is located beyond the limits of Pleistocene glaciation in central Yukon and within the southern limit of the modern continuous permafrost zone. The origin of the massive ground ice, which is preserved under a fine-grained diamicton containing thin layers of tephra, was determined through ice petrography, stable O-H isotope composition of the ice, and gas composition of occluded air entrapped in the ice. The age of the massive ground ice was established by identifying the overlying tephra and radiocarbon dating of a “muck” deposit preserved within the ice. Collectively, the results indicate that the massive ground ice formed by snow densification with limited melting-refreezing and is interpreted as being a buried perennial snowbank. The muck deposit within the ice, which yielded an age of 30,720 ± 340 C a BP, and the Dawson tephra (25,300 C a BP) overlying the perennial snowbank, indicates that the snowbank accumulated at roughly the transition between marine isotope stages 3 and 2. Dry climatic conditions at this time and possibly high winds enabled the snowbank to accumulate in the absence of extensive local valley glaciation as occurred in the mountains to the south. In addition to documenting the persistence of relict permafrost and ground ice to warming climate in regions where they are predicted to disappear by numerical models, this study presents evidence of an isotopic biosignature preserved in a body of massive ground ice.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Geology
    ISSN: 0277-3791
    E-ISSN: 1873-457X
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