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  • 2010  (9)
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  • 2010  (9)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2010, Vol.87(1), pp.11-20
    Description: Visual traces of iron reduction and oxidation are linked to the redox status of soils and have been used to characterise the quality of agricultural soils. We tested whether this feature could also be used to explain the spatial pattern of the natural vegetation of tidal habitats. If so, an easy assessment of the effect of rising sea level on tidal ecosystems would be possible. Our study was conducted at the salt marshes of the northern lagoon of Venice, which are strongly threatened by erosion and rising sea level and are part of the world heritage “Venice and its lagoon”. We analysed the abundance of plant species at 255 sampling points along a land–sea gradient. In addition, we surveyed the redox morphology (presence/absence of red iron oxide mottles in the greyish topsoil horizons) of the soils and the presence of disturbances. We used indicator species analysis, correlation trees and multivariate regression trees to analyse relations between soil properties and plant species distribution. Plant species with known sensitivity to anaerobic conditions (e.g. ) were identified as indicators for oxic soils (showing iron oxide mottles within a greyish soil matrix). Plant species that tolerate a low redox potential (e.g. ) were identified as indicators for anoxic soils (greyish matrix without oxide mottles). Correlation trees and multivariate regression trees indicate the dominant role of the redox morphology of the soils in plant species distribution. In addition, the distance from the mainland and the presence of disturbances were identified as tree-splitting variables. The small-scale variation of oxygen availability plays a key role for the biodiversity of salt marsh ecosystems. Our results suggest that the redox morphology of salt marsh soils indicates the plant availability of oxygen. Thus, the consideration of this indicator may enable an understanding of the heterogeneity of biological processes in oxygen-limited systems and may be a sensitive and easy-to-use tool to assess human impacts on salt marsh ecosystems.
    Keywords: Coastal Wetlands ; Iron Oxides ; Halophyte Ecology ; Regression Trees ; Indicator Species Analysis ; Classification of Marsh Soils ; Biology ; Oceanography
    ISSN: 0272-7714
    E-ISSN: 1096-0015
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Respiratory Research, July 8, 2010, Vol.11, p.93
    Description: Background Legionella pneumophila is an important causative agent of severe pneumonia in humans. Human alveolar epithelium and macrophages are effective barriers for inhaled microorganisms and actively participate in the initiation of innate host defense. The beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), an antimicrobial peptide is an important component of the innate immune response of the human lung. Therefore we hypothesize that hBD-3 might be important for immune defense towards L. pneumophila. Methods We investigated the effects of L. pneumophila and different TLR agonists on pulmonary cells in regard to hBD-3 expression by ELISA. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated inhibition of TLRs as well as chemical inhibition of potential downstream signaling molecules was used for functional analysis. Results L. pneumophila induced release of hBD-3 in pulmonary epithelium and alveolar macrophages. A similar response was observed when epithelial cells were treated with different TLR agonists. Inhibition of TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 expression led to a decreased hBD-3 expression. Furthermore expression of hBD-3 was mediated through a JNK dependent activation of AP-1 (c-Jun) but appeared to be independent of NF-[kappa]B. Additionally, we demonstrate that hBD-3 elicited a strong antimicrobial effect on L. pneumophila replication. Conclusions Taken together, human pulmonary cells produce hBD-3 upon L. pneumophila infection via a TLR-JNK-AP-1-dependent pathway which may contribute to an efficient innate immune defense.
    Keywords: Cellular Proteins -- Health Aspects ; Cellular Proteins -- Research ; Immune Response -- Health Aspects ; Immune Response -- Research ; Legionnaires' Disease -- Causes Of ; Legionnaires' Disease -- Drug Therapy ; Legionnaires' Disease -- Research
    ISSN: 1465-9921
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Respiratory Research, July 8, 2010, Vol.11, p.93
    Description: Background Legionella pneumophila is an important causative agent of severe pneumonia in humans. Human alveolar epithelium and macrophages are effective barriers for inhaled microorganisms and actively participate in the initiation of innate host defense. The beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), an antimicrobial peptide is an important component of the innate immune response of the human lung. Therefore we hypothesize that hBD-3 might be important for immune defense towards L. pneumophila. Methods We investigated the effects of L. pneumophila and different TLR agonists on pulmonary cells in regard to hBD-3 expression by ELISA. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated inhibition of TLRs as well as chemical inhibition of potential downstream signaling molecules was used for functional analysis. Results L. pneumophila induced release of hBD-3 in pulmonary epithelium and alveolar macrophages. A similar response was observed when epithelial cells were treated with different TLR agonists. Inhibition of TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 expression led to a decreased hBD-3 expression. Furthermore expression of hBD-3 was mediated through a JNK dependent activation of AP-1 (c-Jun) but appeared to be independent of NF-[kappa]B. Additionally, we demonstrate that hBD-3 elicited a strong antimicrobial effect on L. pneumophila replication. Conclusions Taken together, human pulmonary cells produce hBD-3 upon L. pneumophila infection via a TLR-JNK-AP-1-dependent pathway which may contribute to an efficient innate immune defense.
    Keywords: Cellular Proteins -- Health Aspects ; Cellular Proteins -- Research ; Immune Response -- Health Aspects ; Immune Response -- Research ; Legionnaires' Disease -- Causes Of ; Legionnaires' Disease -- Drug Therapy ; Legionnaires' Disease -- Research
    ISSN: 1465-9921
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Respiratory Research, 01 July 2010, Vol.11(1), p.93
    Description: Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is an important causative agent of severe pneumonia in humans. Human alveolar epithelium and macrophages are effective barriers for inhaled microorganisms and actively participate in the initiation of innate host defense. The beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), an antimicrobial peptide is an important component of the innate immune response of the human lung. Therefore we hypothesize that hBD-3 might be important for immune defense towards L. pneumophila. Methods We investigated the effects of L. pneumophila and different TLR agonists on pulmonary cells in regard to hBD-3 expression by ELISA. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated inhibition of TLRs as well as chemical inhibition of potential downstream signaling molecules was used for functional analysis. Results L. pneumophila induced release of hBD-3 in pulmonary epithelium and alveolar macrophages. A similar response was observed when epithelial cells were treated with different TLR agonists. Inhibition of TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 expression led to a decreased hBD-3 expression. Furthermore expression of hBD-3 was mediated through a JNK dependent activation of AP-1 (c-Jun) but appeared to be independent of NF-κB. Additionally, we demonstrate that hBD-3 elicited a strong antimicrobial effect on L. pneumophila replication. Conclusions Taken together, human pulmonary cells produce hBD-3 upon L. pneumophila infection via a TLR-JNK-AP-1-dependent pathway which may contribute to an efficient innate immune defense.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1465-9921
    E-ISSN: 1465-993X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2010, Vol.173(5), pp.644-653
    Description: Riparian forests are assumed to play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, little data are available on C stocks of floodplains in comparison to other terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we quantified the C stocks of aboveground biomass and soils of riparian vegetation types at 76 sampling sites in the Donau‐Auen National Park in Austria. Based on our results and a remotely sensed vegetation map, we estimated total C stocks. Carbon stocks in soils (up to 354 t ha within 1 m below surface) were huge compared to other terrestrial ecosystems. As expected, soils of different vegetation types showed different texture with a higher percentage of sandy soils at the softwood sites, while loamy soils prevailed at hardwood sites. Total C stocks of vegetation types were significantly different, but reflect differences in woody plant biomass rather than in soil C stocks. Mature hardwood and cottonwood forests proved to have significantly higher total C stocks (474 and 403 t ha, respectively) than young reforestations (217 t ha) and meadows (212 t ha). The C pools of softwood forests (356 t ha) ranged between those of hardwood/cottonwood forests and of reforestations/meadows. Our study proves the relevance of floodplains as possible C sinks, which should be increasingly taken into account for river management. Furthermore, we conclude that plant‐species distribution does not indicate the conditions of sedimentation and soil C sequestration over the time span of interest for the development of soil C stocks.
    Keywords: Carbon Stocks ; Organic Carbon ; Donau‐Auen National Park ; Fluvial Ecosystems ; Riparian Forest
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Description: Visual traces of iron reduction and oxidation are linked to the redox status of soils and have been used to characterise the quality of agricultural soils.We tested whether this feature could also be used to explain the spatial pattern of the natural vegetation of tidal habitats. If so, an easy assessment of the effect of rising sea level on tidal ecosystems would be possible. Our study was conducted at the salt marshes of the northern lagoon of Venice, which are strongly threatened by erosion and rising sea level and are part of the world heritage 'Venice and its lagoon'. We analysed the abundance of plant species at 255 sampling points along a land-sea gradient. In addition, we surveyed the redox morphology (presence/absence of red iron oxide mottles in the greyish topsoil horizons) of the soils and the presence of disturbances. We used indicator species analysis, correlation trees and multivariate regression trees to analyse relations between soil properties and plant species distribution. Plant species with known sensitivity to anaerobic conditions (e.g. Halimione portulacoides) were identified as indicators for oxic soils (showing iron oxide mottles within a greyish soil matrix). Plant species that tolerate a low redox potential (e.g. Spartina maritima) were...
    Keywords: Event Label ; Latitude Of Event ; Longitude Of Event ; Environment ; Horizon ; Depth, Sediment/Rock ; Depth, Top/Min ; Depth, Bottom/Max ; Ph ; Salinity ; Carbon In Carbonate ; Carbon, Organic, Total ; Nitrogen, Total ; Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio ; Sulfur, Total ; Sodium ; Potassium ; Magnesium ; Calcium ; Cation Exchange Capacity ; Iron Oxides
    Source: DataCite
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 09 March 2010, Vol.55(10), pp.A43.E412-A43.E412
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(10)60413-5 Byline: Nora F. Lang, Matthias Sigler, Elena Merkel, Franziska Fuchs, Dieter Schumann, Dieter Klemm, Friederike Kramer, Anja Meyer, Franz Freudenthal, Christian Schroeder, Susanne Mayer, Heinrich Netz, Rainer Kozlik-Feldmann
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Description: Background: Legionella pneumophila is an important causative agent of severe pneumonia in humans. Human alveolar epithelium and macrophages are effective barriers for inhaled microorganisms and actively participate in the initiation of innate host defense. The beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), an antimicrobial peptide is an important component of the innate immune response of the human lung. Therefore we hypothesize that hBD-3 might be important for immune defense towards L. pneumophila. Methods: We investigated the effects of L. pneumophila and different TLR agonists on pulmonary cells in regard to hBD-3 expression by ELISA. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated inhibition of TLRs as well as chemical inhibition of potential downstream signaling molecules was used for functional analysis. Results: L. pneumophila induced release of hBD-3 in pulmonary epithelium and alveolar macrophages. A similar response was observed when epithelial cells were treated with different TLR agonists. Inhibition of TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 expression led to a decreased hBD-3 expression. Furthermore expression of hBD-3 was mediated through a JNK dependent activation of AP-1 (c-Jun) but appeared to be independent of NF-κB. Additionally, we demonstrate that hBD-3 elicited a strong antimicrobial effect on L. pneumophila replication. Conclusions: Taken together, human pulmonary cells produce hBD-3 upon L. pneumophila infection via a TLR-JNK-AP-...
    Keywords: Humans ; Cultured ; Time Factors ; Epithelial Cells/Microbiology ; Legionella Pneumophila/Immunology ; Nf-Kappa B/Metabolism ; Transcription Factor Ap-1/Metabolism ; Legionella Pneumophila/Growth & Development ; Recombinant Proteins/Metabolism ; Cells ; Epithelial Cells/Immunology ; Epithelial Cells/Metabolism ; Immunity ; Innate ; Legionella Pneumophila/Pathogenicity ; Map Kinase Kinase 4/Metabolism ; Macrophages ; Alveolar/Immunology ; Alveolar/Metabolism ; Alveolar/Microbiology ; Respiratory Mucosa/Immunology ; Respiratory Mucosa/Metabolism ; Respiratory Mucosa/Microbiology ; Signal Transduction ; Toll-Like Receptors/Metabolism ; Up-Regulation ; Beta-Defensins/Metabolism ; Medizin
    Source: DataCite
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  • 9
    Language: German
    Description: Einleitung Ein akuter beidseitiger Hörverlust ist ein seltenes klinisches Erscheinungsbild im Rahmen der Erstdiagnose einer Leukämie. Wir berichten über einen akuten bilateralen, zentralen Hörverlust im Rahmen der Erstdiagnose einer akuten lymphoblastischen Leukämie (ALL)[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]...
    Keywords: Medical Sciences; Medicine
    Source: DataCite
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