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  • 2010  (5)
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  • 2010  (5)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2010, Vol.393(1), pp.1-2
    Description: Includes references ; p. 1-2.
    Keywords: Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2010, Vol.332(1), pp.163-176
    Description: Water flow from soil to plants depends on the properties of the soil next to roots, the rhizosphere. Although several studies showed that the rhizosphere has different properties than the bulk soil, effects of the rhizosphere on root water uptake are commonly neglected. To investigate the rhizosphere’s properties we used neutron radiography to image water content distributions in soil samples planted with lupins during drying and subsequent rewetting. During drying, the water content in the rhizosphere was 0.05 larger than in the bulk soil. Immediately after rewetting, the picture reversed and the rhizosphere remained markedly dry. During the following days the water content of the rhizosphere increased and after 60 h it exceeded that of the bulk soil. The rhizosphere’s thickness was approximately 1.5 mm. Based on the observed dynamics, we derived the distinct, hysteretic and time-dependent water retention curve of the rhizosphere. Our hypothesis is that the rhizosphere’s water retention curve was determined by mucilage exuded by roots. The rhizosphere properties reduce water depletion around roots and weaken the drop of water potential towards roots, therefore favoring water uptake under dry conditions, as demonstrated by means of analytical calculation of water flow to a single root.
    Keywords: Root water uptake ; Water retention curve ; Rhizosphere ; Neutron radiography ; Mucilage ; Hysteresis
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Computers and Geosciences, 2010, Vol.36(10), pp.1246-1251
    Description: For many analyses, grey scale images from X-ray tomography and other sources need to be segmented into objects and background which often is a difficult task and afflicted by an arbitrary and subjective choice of threshold values. This is especially true if the volume fraction of objects is small and the histogram becomes unimodal. Bi-level segmentation based on region growing is a promising approach to cope with the fuzzy transition zone between object and background due to the partial volume effect, but until now there is no method to properly determine the required thresholds in case of unimodality. We propose an automatic and robust technique for threshold selection based on edge detection. The method uses gradient masks which are defined as regions of interest for the determination of threshold values. Its robustness is analysed by a systematic performance test and finally demonstrated for the segmentation of pores in different soils using images from X-ray tomography.
    Keywords: Segmentation ; Thresholding ; Edge Detection ; Region Growing ; Tomography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0098-3004
    E-ISSN: 1873-7803
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, February 2010, Vol.173(1), pp.88-99
    Description: Soil, the “Earth's thin skin” serves as the delicate interface between the biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. It is a dynamic and hierarchically organized system of various organic and inorganic constituents and organisms, the spatial structure of which defines a large, complex, and heterogeneous interface. Biogeochemical processes at soil interfaces are fundamental for the overall soil development, and they are the primary driving force for key ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and water quality. Ultimately, these processes control the fate and transport of contaminants and nutrients into the vadose zone and as such their biogeochemical cycling. The definite objective in biogeochemical‐interface research is to gain a mechanistic understanding of the architecture of these biogeochemical interfaces in soils and of the complex interplay and interdependencies of the physical, chemical, and biological processes acting at and within these dynamic interfaces in soil. The major challenges are (1) to identify the factors controlling the architecture of biogeochemical interfaces, (2) to link the processes operative at the individual molecular and/or organism scale to the phenomena active at the aggregate scale in a mechanistic way, and (3) to explain the behavior of organic chemicals in soil within a general mechanistic framework. To put this in action, integration of soil physical, chemical, and biological disciplines is mandatory. Indispensably, it requires the adaption and development of characterization and probing techniques adapted from the neighboring fields of molecular biology, analytical and computational chemistry as well as materials and nano‐sciences. To shape this field of fundamental soil research, the German Research Foundation (DFG) has granted the Priority Program “Biogeochemical Interfaces in Soil”, in which 22 individual research projects are involved.
    Keywords: Soil Function ; Soil Architecture ; Spectro‐Microscopy ; Tomography ; Som ; Soil Microbial Ecology ; Organic Chemicals
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    Language: German
    Description: This dissertation thesis discusses questions related to the representation of power in the archaeological record of the ancient Near East. The analysis offered here will focus on how power and power structures are created by analyzing on the one hand images on cylinder seals from the Late Uruk-Period at the end of the 4th millennium BCE, and on the other hand the finds from the Early Dynastic Royal Cemetery of Ur dating roughly to the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE. In particular, this analysis will focus on the ways in which hierarchical structures are established, maintained, and transmitted from the perspective of power and gender. The first part contains a detailed analysis of Late Uruk cylinder seals in order to show how power and domination is created through ideas that are represented on these images. This analysis is based on the hypothesis that Late Uruk-Period images are a visual archive of Mesopotamian ideas on the relationship between domination and the dominated, and that this imagery of power established patterns that are still visible today. I shall argue that these representations are an embodiment of political and social aspects of power and powerlessness, and that the bodies that are represented on these seals validate and give meaning to social and political order and organizations. My analysis includes a study of the positions that women held within these power constellations during the Late Uruk- and Early Dynastic Periods with the objective of deconstructing our own notions of power and, ultimately, of deconstructing our notions of history as an aspect of male ways of existence. The second part of this thesis is concerned with why and how power was created within the framework of the formation of city-states. Burials that accompany the royal tombs lead to questions regarding the relationship between perpetrators and victims within the context of the state. In this context, I discuss the ways in which modern scholars give meaning to the historical processes that led to the supposed human sacrifices in the Royal Cemetery of Ur. The (still contested) identities and social ranks of the skeletons interred in the Royal Tombs and the accompanying burials are determined by interpreting the goods that were placed within the tombs. The objective here is to show that there is a relationship between power, gender, and objects within the context of the Royal Cemetery of Ur. A detailed analysis of the inventories of the Royal Tombs and certain “private” burials will reconstruct the social rules and social classifications in Early Dynastic Ur and recreate the political paradigm within which these rules and classifications were embedded. The findings of the Royal Cemetery of Ur illustrate at least one aspect: human existence is always social as well as bodily, but also reified. How goods are distributed within a society is therefore not a political effect but an expression of a production of political structures. The distribution of goods is not only a reflection of poverty and plenty in the economic sense but also offers a possibility to express identity, action, and knowledge, which determine the identities and social participation of people.
    Keywords: 953 General History Of Asia; Arabian Peninsula And Adjacent Areas ; Ddc:953 ; 953 Geschichte Der Arabischen Halbinsel Und Benachbarter Gebiete ; 709 Histor., Geogr., Personenbezogene Behandlung Der Bildenden Kunst Und Des Kunsthandwerks ; 709 Historical, Areas, Persons Treatment ; Ddc:709 ; Macht ; Herrschaft ; Gender ; Vorderer Orient ; Königsfriedhof Von Ur ; Glyptik ; Urukzeit ; Frühdynastikum ; Body Politics
    Source: Freie Universitat Berlin
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