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  • 2013  (9)
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  • 2013  (9)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.370(1), pp.497-509
    Description: Aims: We analysed current carbon (C) stocks in fine root and aboveground biomass of riparian forests and influential environmental parameters on either side of a dike in the Donau-Auen National Park, Austria. Methods: On both sides of the dike, carbon (C) stock of fine roots (CFR) under four dominant tree species and of aboveground biomass (CAB) were assessed by topsoil cores (0-30 cm) and angle count sampling method respectively (n=48). C stocks were modeled, performing boosted regression trees (BRT). Results: Overall CFR was 2.8 t ha super(-1), with significantly higher C stocks in diked (DRF) compared to flooded riparian forests (FRF). In contrast to CFR, mean CAB was 123 t ha super(-1) and lower in DRF compared to FRF. However, dike construction was consistently ruled out as a predictor variable in BRT. CFR was influenced by the distance to the Danube River and the dominant tree species. CAB was mainly influenced by the magnitude of fluctuations in the groundwater table and the distances to the river and the low groundwater table. Conclusions: Despite pronounced differences in FRF and DRF, we conclude that there is only weak support that dikes directly influence C allocation in floodplain forests within the time scale considered (110 years).
    Keywords: Aboveground biomass ; Belowground biomass ; Carbon distribution ; Carbon sequestration ; Dike ; Ecosystem services ; Floodplain forest
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2013, Vol.13(3), pp.606-615
    Description: Byline: Horst Schonsky (1), Andre Peters (1), Friederike Lang (2), Stefan Abel (1), Beate Mekiffer (3), Gerd Wessolek (1) Keywords: Column experiment; Construction rubble; Numerical modeling; Sulfate; Urban soil Abstract: Purpose In Berlin and many other cities, technogenic soil substrates from World War II and building and construction debris, in general, play an important role for soil formation and solute transport in the vadose zone. The largest debris landfill in Berlin is the Teufelsberg. Sulfate release from the landfill poses threats to groundwater quality. The scope of this study is to determine and model the processes controlling sulfate release from soils containing construction rubble. Materials and methods Column leaching experiments were conducted to analyze sulfate mobilization from Teufelsberg topsoil material. Flow interruptions of 1 and 7 days were applied. Sulfate release was modeled using a geochemical simulation tool (HP1). The model considered water flux, solute transport, and precipitation/dissolution with first-order kinetics. Results and discussion Sulfate release increased after flow interruptions, although bromide breakthrough indicated physical equilibrium of transport processes. Hence, kinetically limited solution/dissolution of sulfate is assumed. The model was applicable for qualitative description of our experimental results. The estimated equilibrium concentrations of sulfate were one to two orders of magnitude smaller than expected according to the equilibrium constant of gypsum. Conclusions It is assumed that the mobilization and transport of sulfate from debris soil material can be described by an effective model. If sulfate release and transport from soils containing debris is modeled using literature values of thermodynamic constants for gypsum, sulfate concentrations will be overestimated by one to two orders of magnitude. Author Affiliation: (1) Fachgebiet Standortkunde und Bodenschutz, Technische Universitat Berlin, Ernst Reuter Platz 1, 10587, Berlin, Germany (2) Institut fur Bodenkunde und Waldernahrungslehre, Albert Ludwig Universitat Freiburg, Bertoldstr. 17, 79085, Freiburg i.Br., Germany (3) WISTA-MANAGEMENT GMBH, Rudower Chaussee 17, 12489, Berlin, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 01/10/2012 Received Date: 12/12/2011 Accepted Date: 01/10/2012 Online Date: 19/10/2012 Article note: Responsible editor: Jean Louis Morel
    Keywords: Column experiment ; Construction rubble ; Numerical modeling ; Sulfate ; Urban soil
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 3
    In: Eastern European Countryside, 12/1/2013, Vol.19(1), pp.153-176
    Description: Regional agro-food networks have an impact on the development of rural regions. Networks give small and medium sized enterprises the opportunity to gain access to further markets (e.g. through offering a wider common product range), to conduct more effective marketing or to synergize the variety of skills and knowhow of the network partners. Networks of the agricultural and food economy are also seen as a chance for rural regions because they can positively influence social and cultural lives as well as the natural and economic areas in regions. We analysed regional networks of the agricultural and food economy, investigated the strengths and weaknesses in the structure of agro-food networks and developed options for action to strengthen the collaboration within the networks and their regional marketing. In our paper we present the results of one case study in Eastern Germany. We show our findings of a strengths and weaknesses analysis and a constellation analysis. Therefore, success factors were identified and used to evaluate the networks qualitatively. In addition, we discuss how regional networks can support regional marketing and sustainable regional development.
    Keywords: Agronomy ; Marketing ; Sustainable Development ; Food;
    ISSN: 1232-8855
    E-ISSN: 21995877
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung - Geoinformation, 08/01/2013, Vol.2013(4), pp.333-349
    Description: Floodplain ecosystems offer valuable carbon sequestration potential. In comparison to other terrestrial ecosystems, riparian forests have a considerably higher storage capacity for organic carbon (C org ). However, a scientific foundation for the creation of large-scale maps that show the spatial distribution of C org is still lacking. In this paper we explore a machine learning approach using remote sensing and additional geographic data for an area-wide high-resolution estimation of C org stock distribution and evaluate the relevance of individual geofactors. The research area is the Danube Floodplain National Park in Austria, one of the very few pristine riparian habitats left in Central Europe. Two satellite image (Ikonos and Rapid-Eye), historical and current topographic maps, a digital elevation model (DEM), and mean ground-water level (MGW) were included. We compared classifications of C org stocks in vegetation, soils, and total biomass based on two, three, four, and five classes. The results showed that a spatial model of C org in riparian forests can be generated by using a combination of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm. The complexity of Floodplains, where patterns of C org distribution are inherently difficult to define, clearly exacerbated the challenge of achieving high classification accuracy. In assessing the relevance of individual geofactors, we found that remote sensing parameters are more important for the classification of C org in vegetation, whereas parameters from auxiliary geodata, e.g. elevation or historical riverbeds, have more influence for the classification of soil C org stocks. This was also confirmed by a comparative linear multiple regression analysis.
    Keywords: Organic Carbon ; Floodplains ; Cart ; Obia ; Linear Multiple Regression;
    ISSN: 14328364
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 5
    Language: German
    Description: This study demonstrates that the peptide hormone α-MSH, which has potent antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties, is formed in the context of pneumococcal disease in pulmonary tissue and posesses antimicrobial activity against the pathogen S. pneumoniae. The prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), which catalyzes the proteolytic cleavage of ACTH to α-MSH, is induced by the cell wall-associated pneumococcal virulence factor serine protease PrtA. However, even without the involvement of PC2, there was PrtA-induced α-MSH induction. This implies that the little-studied pneumococcal virulence factor PrtA may play an important role in the activation of the innate immunity in pneumococcal pneumonia by induction of antiinflammatory and antimicrobial α-MSH.
    Keywords: 610 Medizin Und Gesundheit ; 610 Medical Sciences; Medicine ; Ddc:610 ; Streptococcus Pneumoniae ; Antimicrobial Peptides ; Alpha-msh ; Pneumonia ; Serine Protease Prta ; Prohormone Convertase 2
    Source: Freie Universitat Berlin
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10 September 2013, Vol.110(37), pp.15019-24
    Description: Robust cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell response is important for immunity to intracellular pathogens. Here, we show that the transcription factor IFN Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is crucial for the protective CD8(+) T-cell response to the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. IRF4-deficient (Irf4(-/-)) mice could not clear L. monocytogenes infection and generated decreased numbers of L. monocytogenes-specific CD8(+) T cells with impaired effector phenotype and function. Transfer of wild-type CD8(+) T cells into Irf4(-/-) mice improved bacterial clearance, suggesting an intrinsic defect of CD8(+) T cells in Irf4(-/-) mice. Following transfer into wild-type recipients, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells became activated and showed initial proliferation upon L. monocytogenes infection. However, these cells could not sustain proliferation, produced reduced amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and failed to acquire cytotoxic function. Forced IRF4 expression in Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells rescued the defect. During acute infection, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells demonstrated diminished expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)2, and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), transcription factors programming effector-cell generation. IRF4 was essential for expression of Blimp-1, suggesting that altered regulation of Blimp-1 contributes to the defects of Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells. Despite increased levels of B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), Eomesodermin, and Id3, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells showed impaired memory-cell formation, indicating additional functions for IRF4 in this process. As IRF4 governs B-cell and CD4(+) T-cell differentiation, the identification of its decisive role in peripheral CD8(+) T-cell differentiation, suggests a common regulatory function for IRF4 in adaptive lymphocytes fate decision.
    Keywords: Interferon Regulatory Factors -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Pharmaceutical Research, 2013, Vol.30(5), pp.1380-1399
    Keywords: aggregation ; antibodies ; deamidation ; fermentation ; stress models
    ISSN: 0724-8741
    E-ISSN: 1573-904X
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Pharmaceutical research, May 2013, Vol.30(5), pp.1380-99
    Description: To investigate antibody stability and formation of modified species under upstream processing conditions. The stability of 11 purified monoclonal human IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies, including an IgG1-based bispecific CrossMab, was compared in downscale mixing stress models. One of these molecules was further evaluated in realistic bioreactor stress models and in cell culture fermentations. Analytical techniques include size exclusion chromatography (SEC), turbidity measurements, cation exchange chromatography (cIEX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Sensitivity in downscale stress models varies among antibodies and results in formation of high molecular weight (HMW) aggregates. Stability is increased in cell culture medium and in bioreactors. Media components stabilizing the proteins were identified. Extensive chemical modifications were detected both in stress models as well as during production of antibodies in cell culture fermentations. Protective compounds must be present in chemically defined fermentation media in order to stabilize antibodies against the formation of HMW aggregates. An increase in chemical modifications is detectable in bioreactor stress models and over the course of cell culture fermentations; this increase is dependent on the expression rate, pH, temperature and fermentation time. Consequently, product heterogeneity increases during upstream processing, and this compromises the product quality.
    Keywords: Antibodies, Monoclonal -- Chemistry ; Immunoglobulin G -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 07248741
    E-ISSN: 1573-904X
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  • 9
    In: Neurology, 2013, Vol.81(14), pp.1226-1234
    Description: OBJECTIVE:: To determine nonmotor signs (NMS) and evaluate the utility of several diagnostic tools in patients with de novo Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS:: This is a large single-center study of the DeNoPa cohort, including frequency-matched healthy controls. This study covers motor signs, NMS, and a combination of diagnostic tests including olfactory testing, transcranial sonography of substantia nigra (TCS), and polysomnography (PSG). We report the frequency and characteristics of NMS and the outcomes of nonmotor tests at the time of diagnosis. RESULTS:: Cross-sectional analyses of baseline investigations identified significant differences in the NMS Questionnaire (NMSQuest) and the Scopa-AUT Gastrointestinal score in 159 drug-naïve PD patients vs 110 controls. In addition, patients with PD showed reduced olfactory function, hyperechogenicity on TCS, and higher frequency of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). In exploring predictive markers, we found that the combination of several investigations, i.e., the NMSQuest, Scopa-AUT Gastrointestinal score, and Smell Identification Test reached an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.913 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.878–0.948). With the addition of serum cholesterol and mean heart rate values, the AUC value reached 0.919 (95% CI 886–0.953); when TCS and PSG were added, the AUC increased to 0.963 (95% CI 0.943–0.982). CONCLUSIONS:: We show feasibility and utility of standardized data acquisition in a large, single-center cohort of patients with de novo PD and matched healthy controls. The baseline results from our prospective investigations reached a value of 〉0.9 sensitivity and specificity for biological markers when we added routine laboratory investigations and quantified nonmotor features including sleep.
    Keywords: Substantia Nigra ; Inventories ; Neurodegenerative Diseases ; Sleep (Rem) ; Movement Disorders ; Parkinson'S Disease ; Heart Rate ; Cholesterol ; Biomarkers ; Data Acquisition ; Olfaction ; Neurology & Neuropathology;
    ISSN: 0028-3878
    E-ISSN: 1526632X
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