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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geomorphology, 01 June 2014, Vol.214, pp.157-167
    Description: Sediment trapping and organic carbon (OC) accretion in soil are crucial ecosystem services of floodplain forests. However, interactions between the two processes have scarcely been analyzed at the ecosystem level. This study aimed at quantifying OC accretion parameters (CAP, including sedimentation rate, OC concentration, OC accretion) over roughly the last 50 years on both sides of a dike in a Danubian floodplain forest in Austria. Additionally, we determined soil OC stocks (0–100 cm in depth) and modeled both CAP and OC stocks in relation to environmental parameters. Overall, mean sedimentation rate and OC accretion of the riparian forest were 0.8 cm y and 3.3 t OC ha y and significantly higher in flooded riparian forest (FRF; 1.0 cm y and 4.1 t OC ha y ) than in diked riparian forest (DRF; 0.3 cm y and 1.5 t OC ha y ). In contrast, mean OC concentration (0.05 t OC m ) and OC stocks (238 t OC ha ) were significantly higher in the DRF than in FRF (0.05 vs. 0.04 t OC m and 286 vs. 201 t OC ha ). Modeling revealed tree species, fluctuation of groundwater table, and the distance to the river as valuable indicators for OC accretion rate. The OC concentration and distance to the river were positively and sedimentation negatively correlated with OC stock. The dike was consistently ruled out as a significant predictor variable. Consequently, differences among FRF and DRF seem to be related rather to longer term processes during the last centuries than directly to the dike. Our findings highlight the relevance of sediment quality (i.e., OC concentration) for building up long-term soil OC stocks, whereas sediment quantity is the main driver of recent OC accretion rates.
    Keywords: Carbon Accretion Rate ; Carbon Stock ; Dendrogeomorphology ; Dike ; Floodplain Forest ; Sedimentation Rate ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0169-555X
    E-ISSN: 1872-695X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Chemistry, 2014, Vol.11(6), p.709-718
    Description:  The supramolecular structure and resulting physicochemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM) significantly control storage and buffer functions of soils, e.g. for nutrients, organic molecules and water. Multivalent cations, able to form complexes, are suggested to form inter- and intramolecular cross-links in SOM. At present, specific effects of the valence and type of cation on SOM properties are incompletely understood. We investigated changes in SOM interfacial properties, its ability to release mobile colloids in aqueous solutions and its sorption affinity towards organic chemicals in dependence on cation–SOM interactions, temperature and aging time.
    Keywords: colloids; contact angle; sorption; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
    ISSN: 1448-2517
    E-ISSN: 1449-8979
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2014, Vol.118(2), pp.1203-1213
    Description: Multivalent cations are suggested to influence the supramolecular structure of soil organic matter (SOM) via inter- and intra-molecular interactions with SOM functional groups. In this study, we tested the combined effect of cations, temperature treatment, and isothermal aging on SOM matrix properties. Samples from a peat and a mineral soil were either enriched with Na, Ca, and Al or desalinated in batch experiments. After treatment at 25, 40, 60, and 105 °C and after different periods of aging at 19 °C and 31 % relative humidity, we investigated the physicochemical matrix stability and the thermal stability against combustion. We hypothesized that multivalent cations stabilize the SOM matrix, that these structures disrupt at elevated temperatures, and that aging leads to an increase in matrix stability. The results show that cation-specific effects on matrix rigidity started to evolve in the peat only after 8 weeks of aging and were significantly lower than the temperature effects. Temperature treatment above 40 °C caused a non (or not immediately) reversible loss of water molecule bridges (WaMB) and above 60 °C a partly reversible melting process probably of semi-crystalline poly(methylene). Thermal stability increased with increasing cation valence and degree of protonation and was much less affected by temperature. Generally, Na-treated and control samples revealed lower thermal stability and lower increase in matrix rigidity with aging than those treated with Ca, Al, and H. We conclude that drying at elevated temperatures (〉40 °C) may irreversibly change SOM structure via disruption of labile cross-links and melting of semi-crystalline domains.
    Keywords: Cation ; Combustion enthalpy ; Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) ; Soil organic matter (SOM) ; Step transition
    ISSN: 1388-6150
    E-ISSN: 1588-2926
    E-ISSN: 15728943
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: World journal of cardiology, 26 April 2014, Vol.6(4), pp.183-95
    Description: To investigate molecular phenotypes of myocardial B19V-infection to determine the role of B19V in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) from 498 B19V-positive patients with myocarditis and DCM were analyzed using molecular methods and functional experiments. EMBs were obtained from the University Hospitals of Greifswald and Tuebingen and additionally from 36 German cardiology centers. Control tissues were obtained at autopsy from 34 victims of accidents, crime or suicide. Identification of mononuclear cell infiltrates in EMBs was performed using immunohistological staining. Anti-B19V-IgM and anti-B19V-IgG were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). B19V viral loads were determined using in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For B19V-genotyping a new B19V-genotype-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR was established. B19V-genotyping was verified by direct DNA-sequencing and sequences were aligned using BLAST and BioEdit software. B19V P6-promoter and HHV6-U94-transactivator constructs were generated for cell culture experiments. Transfection experiments were conducted using human endothelial cells 1. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to determine B19V-replication activity. Statistical analysis and graphical representation were calculated using SPSS and Prism5 software. The prevalence of B19V was significantly more likely to be associated with inflammatory cardiomyopathy (iCMP) compared to uninflamed DCM (59.6% vs 35.3%) (P 〈 0.0001). The detection of B19V-mRNA replication intermediates proved that replication of B19V was present. RFLP-PCR assays showed that B19V-genotype 1 (57.4%) and B19V-genotype 2 (36.7%) were the most prevalent viral genotypes. B19V-genotype 2 was observed more frequently in EMBs with iCMP (65.0%) compared to DCM (35%) (P = 0.049). Although there was no significant difference in gender-specific B19V-loads, women were more frequently infected with B19V-genotype 2 (44.6%) than men (36.0%) (P = 0.0448). Coinfection with B19V and other cardiotropic viruses was found in 19.2% of tissue samples and was associated with higher B19V viral load compared to B19V-monoinfected tissue (P = 0.0012). The most frequent coinfecting virus was human herpes virus 6 (HHV6, 16.5%). B19V-coinfection with HHV6 showed higher B19V-loads compared to B19V-monoinfected EMBs (P = 0.0033), suggesting that HHV6 had transactivated B19V. In vitro experiments confirmed a 2.4-fold increased B19V P6-promoter activity by the HHV6 U94-transactivator. The finding of significantly increased B19V loads in patients with histologically proven cardiac inflammation suggests a crucial role of B19V-genotypes and reactivation of B19V-infection by HHV6-coinfection in B19V-associated iCMP. Our findings suggest that B19V-infection of the human heart can be a causative event for the development of an endothelial cell-mediated inflammatory disease and that this is related to both viral load and genotype.
    Keywords: B19v Co-Infection ; B19v-Genotypes ; Dilated Cardiomyopathy ; Myocarditis ; Parvovirus B19
    ISSN: 1949-8462
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  • 5
    In: 世界心脏病学杂志:英文版(电子版) - World Journal of Cardiology, 2014, Issue 04, pp.183-195
    Description: AIM:To investigate molecular phenotypes of myocardial B19V-infection to determine the role of B19V in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy(DCM).METHODS:Endomyocardial biopsies(EMBs) from 498 B19V-positive patients with myocarditis and DCMwere analyzed using molecular methods and functional experiments.EMBs were obtained from the University Hospitals of Greifswald and Tuebingen and additionally from 36 German cardiology centers.Control tissues were obtained at autopsy from 34 victims of accidents,crime or suicide.Identification of mononuclear cell infiltrates in EMBs was performed using immunohistological staining.Anti-B19V-IgM and anti-B19V-IgG were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).B19V viral loads were determined using in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR).For B19V-genotyping a new B19V-genotype-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP)-PCR was established.B19V-genotyping was verified by direct DNAsequencing and sequences were aligned using BLAST and BioEdit software.B19V P6-promoter and HHV6-U94-transactivator constructs were generated for cell culture experiments.Transfection experiments were conducted using human endothelial cells 1.Luciferase reporter assays were performed to determine B19Vreplication activity.Statistical analysis and graphical representation were calculated using SPSS and Prism5 software.RESULTS:The prevalence of B19V was significantly more likely to be associated with inflammatory cardiomyopathy(iCMP) compared to uninflamed DCM(59.6% vs 35.3%)(P 〈 0.0001).The detection of B19V-mRNA replication intermediates proved that replication of B19V was present.RFLP-PCR assays showed that B19V-genotype 1(57.4%) and B19V-genotype 2(36.7%) were the most prevalent viral genotypes.B19V-genotype 2 was observed more frequently in EMBs with iCMP(65.0%) compared to DCM(35%)(P = 0.049).Although there was no significant difference in gender-specific B19V-loads,women were more frequently infected with B19V-genotype 2(44.6%) than men(36.0%)(P = 0.0448).Coinfection with B19V and other cardiotropic viruses was found in 19.2% of tissuesamples and was associated with higher B19V viral load compared to B19V-monoinfected tissue(P = 0.0012).The most frequent coinfecting virus was human herpes virus 6(HHV6,16.5%).B19V-coinfection with HHV6 showed higher B19V-loads compared to B19V-monoinfected EMBs(P = 0.0033),suggesting that HHV6 had transactivated B19V.In vitro experiments confirmed a 2.4-fold increased B19V P6-promoter activity by the HHV6 U94-transactivator.CONCLUSION:The finding of significantly increased B19V loads in patients with histologically proven cardiac inflammation suggests a crucial role of B19V-genotypes and reactivation of B19V-infection by HHV6-coinfection in B19V-associated iCMP.Our findings suggest that B19V-infection of the human heart can be a causative event for the development of an endothelial cell-mediated inflammatory disease and that this is related to both viral load and genotype.
    Keywords: Myocarditis ; Dilated ; Cardiomyopathy ; Parvovirus ; B19 ; B19v ; Genotypes ; B19v ; Co ; Infection
    ISSN: 1949-8462
    Source: 维普数据 (Chongqing VIP Information Co.)
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