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  • 2014  (14)
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  • 2014  (14)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: BMC microbiology, 24 June 2014, Vol.14, pp.166
    Description: Bacterial lipoproteins often play important roles in pathogenesis and can stimulate protective immune responses. Such lipoproteins are viable vaccine candidates. Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, expresses a number of lipoproteins during human infection. One such lipoprotein, OmpP4, is homologous to the outer membrane lipoprotein e (P4) of H. influenzae. In H. influenzae, e (P4) stimulates production of bactericidal and protective antibodies and contributes to pathogenesis by facilitating acquisition of the essential nutrients heme and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that, like its homolog, H. ducreyi OmpP4 contributes to virulence and stimulates production of bactericidal antibodies. We determined that OmpP4 is broadly conserved among clinical isolates of H. ducreyi. We next constructed and characterized an isogenic ompP4 mutant, designated 35000HPompP4, in H. ducreyi strain 35000HP. To test whether OmpP4 was necessary for virulence in humans, eight healthy adults were experimentally infected. Each subject was inoculated with a fixed dose of 35000HP on one arm and three doses of 35000HPompP4 on the other arm. The overall parent and mutant pustule formation rates were 52.4% and 47.6%, respectively (P = 0.74). These results indicate that expression of OmpP4 in not necessary for H. ducreyi to initiate disease or progress to pustule formation in humans. Hyperimmune mouse serum raised against purified, recombinant OmpP4 did not promote bactericidal killing of 35000HP or phagocytosis by J774A.1 mouse macrophages in serum bactericidal and phagocytosis assays, respectively. Our data suggest that, unlike e (P4), H. ducreyi OmpP4 is not a suitable vaccine candidate. OmpP4 may be dispensable for virulence because of redundant mechanisms in H. ducreyi for heme acquisition and NAD utilization.
    Keywords: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins -- Metabolism ; Chancroid -- Microbiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Virulence Factors -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1471-2180
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Description: Introduction -- In defense of Scarlett O'Hara -- Gone with the men: Scarlett and Melanie redux in Cold Mountain -- "Put your heart in the land": an intertextual reading of Barren ground and Gone with the wind -- Sula: "more sinned against than sinning" -- "Disregarding the female imperative": Kat Meads's...
    Keywords: Mitchell, Margaret, 1900-1949. Gone With The Wind ; Frazier, Charles, 1950- Cold Mountain ; Glasgow, Ellen Anderson Gholson, 1873-1945 Barren Ground ; Morrison, Toni. Sula ; Meads, Kat, 1951- Invented Life Of Kitty Duncan (Benedict Roberts Duncan) ; O&Apos;Hara, Scarlett (Fictitious Character) ; Women In Literature ; Social Role In Literature ; Man-Woman Relationships In Literature ; Female Friendship In Literature
    ISBN: 9781611173734
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Description: One of Paul Green's best plays, 'The House of Connelly' was the first play performed (on Broadway in 1931) by the renowned Group Theatre of New York. This book reintroduces the play, and the playwright - famous in his day, but largely forgotten now.
    Keywords: Green, Paul, 1894-1981. House Of Connelly ; Green, Paul, 1894-1981 -- Criticism And Interpretation ; Literature ; Carolina (Motion Picture)
    Source: VLeBooks
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(8), p.e101604
    Description: Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 20) was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS ≥ 8) was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C ≥ 50) was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT ≥ 5) was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16-24) reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2%) compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: NATURE, 2014
    Description: Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled 〉94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.
    Keywords: Biology And Life Sciences ; Evolution ; Plant ; Rna-Seq ; Nuclear-Dna ; Forest Trees ; Whole-Genome ; Alignment ; Database ; Gene ; Tool
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BioChip Journal, 2014, Vol.8(2), pp.122-128
    Description: The extent to which the carrier fluid wets the walls of a microchannel is crucial in the droplet formation process for segmented flow microfluidic applications and can be influenced by the use of surfactants. Surfactants dynamically modify the microchannel surface leading to stabilization of the two phase interface, affecting the droplet formation process. An experimental study of the influence of hydrophobic surfactant (Span 80) during the formation of water-inoil droplets in a T-shaped microchannel geometry is presented and the wetting properties of the microchannel walls were characterized. The range of data to be analyzed on the microscale is estimated from the macroscopic interfacial tension and contact angle measurements. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) level at the microscale was estimated by observing the trend of droplet length variation with concentration of surfactant in a microchannel. Microchannels used in this work were fabricated using softlithography methods and bonded using a custom-made plasma bonding setup that does not require an ultra high vacuum chamber and hence saves the fabrication cost.
    Keywords: Microdroplets ; Microchannel ; Double emulsions ; Wettability ; Surfactants
    ISSN: 1976-0280
    E-ISSN: 2092-7843
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 2014, Vol.34(4), pp.474-477
    Description: BACKGROUND:: Many patients use the Internet for health information. However, there are few guarantees to the reliability and accuracy of this information. This study examined the quality and content of the Internet Web pages for 10 common pediatric orthopaedic diagnoses. METHODS:: We identified 10 common diagnoses in pediatric orthopaedics: brachial plexus injury, cerebral palsy, clubfoot, developmental dysplasia of the hip, leg length discrepancy, osteochondroma, polydactyly, scoliosis, spina bifida, and syndactyly. We used 2 of the most popular search engines to identify the top 10 Web sites for each disease. We evaluated the Web sites utilizing both the quality-based Health On the Net (HON) Foundation criteria and our own content-based grading sheets. The custom grading sheets focused on essential information about disease summary, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. RESULTS:: Three orthopaedic surgeons graded 98 academic, commercial, nonprofit, and physicians’ Web sites for 10 diseases. Academic Web sites scored the highest in content (mean, 60.8%±15.5%), whereas commercial Web sites scored the lowest (mean, 46.7%±22.2%). Among the diagnoses, osteochondroma Web sites had the highest content scores (mean, 75.8%±11.8%), whereas polydactyly Web sites had the lowest content scores (mean, 39.3%±15.7%). In contrast, Web sites about developmental dysplasia of the hip had the highest HON scores (65.0±11.1), whereas those about brachial plexus birth palsy scored the lowest (42.6%±16.9%). Among the content subgroups, scores were generally higher for disease summary and diagnostics and lower for prognosis. CONCLUSIONS:: The Internet Web sites reviewed demonstrated a wide range of content and information. We found that nonprofit and academic Web sites were the most reliable sources, whereas commercial and, surprisingly, physician-run Web sites were the least reliable. We advise physicians to talk to their patients about the information they get on the Internet and how it dictates their expectations. We hope this study, combined with further understanding of how our patients use this information, can help improve the Internet content. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:: Physicians should know that their patients may be receiving misleading information from the Internet and be able to discuss this with their patients.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0271-6798
    E-ISSN: 15392570
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 2014, Vol.76(2), pp.358-365
    Description: BACKGROUND: The International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10)–based Injury Severity Score (ICISS) performs well but requires diagnosis-specific survival probabilities (DSPs), which are empirically derived, for its calculation. The objective was to examine if DSPs based on data pooled from several countries could increase accuracy, precision, utility, and international comparability of DSPs and ICISS. METHODS: Australia, Argentina, Austria, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand, and Sweden provided ICD-10–coded injury hospital discharge data, including in-hospital mortality status. Data from the seven countries were pooled using four different methods to create an international collaborative effort ICISS (ICE-ICISS). The ability of the ICISS to predict mortality using the country-specific DSPs and the pooled DSPs was estimated and compared. RESULTS: The pooled DSPs were based on a total of 3,966,550 observations of injury diagnoses from the seven countries. The proportion of injury diagnoses having at least 100 discharges to calculate the DSP varied from 12% to 48% in the country-specific data set and was 66% in the pooled data set. When compared with using a country’s own DSPs for ICISS calculation, the pooled DSPs resulted in somewhat reduced discrimination in predicting mortality (difference in c statistic varied from 0.006 to 0.04). Calibration was generally good when the predicted mortality risk was less than 20%. When Danish and Swedish data were used, ICISS was combined with age and sex in a logistic regression model to predict in-hospital mortality. Including age and sex improved both discrimination and calibration substantially, and the differences from using country-specific or pooled DSPs were minor. CONCLUSION: Pooling data from seven countries generated empirically derived DSPs. These pooled DSPs facilitate international comparisons and enables the use of ICISS in all settings where ICD-10 hospital discharge diagnoses are available. The modest reduction in performance of the ICE-ICISS compared with the country-specific scores is unlikely to outweigh the benefit of internationally comparable Injury Severity Scores possible with pooled data. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological study, level III.
    Keywords: Adult–Classification ; Argentina–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Australia–Classification ; Austria–Diagnosis ; Canada–Mortality ; Cause of Death–Therapy ; Denmark–Therapy ; Female–Therapy ; Hospital Mortality–Therapy ; Humans–Therapy ; International Classification of Diseases–Therapy ; Logistic Models–Therapy ; Male–Therapy ; Middle Aged–Therapy ; New Zealand–Therapy ; Patient Discharge–Therapy ; Predictive Value of Tests–Therapy ; Probability–Therapy ; Survival Analysis–Therapy ; Sweden–Therapy ; Trauma Severity Indices–Therapy ; Wounds and Injuries–Therapy ; Abridged;
    ISSN: 2163-0755
    E-ISSN: 21630763
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Description: Our aim for this particular case study was to examine the economic case for a help-at-home scheme focused on supporting older people to live more independently in their homes. For this purpose we sought to evaluate the costs of the scheme and the outcomes...
    Keywords: HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform ; HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology ; RA Public aspects of medicine
    Source: London School of Economics and Political Science
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Nature 7505 , 356-362., 2014
    Description: Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled 〉94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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