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  • 2014  (82)
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  • 2014  (82)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, July, 2014, Vol.107, p.13(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.055 Byline: Christoph Stang, Matthias Valentin Wieczorek, Christian Noss, Andreas Lorke, Frank Scherr, Gerhard Goerlitz, Ralf Schulz Abstract: acents Aquatic macrophytes determine how dispersion and sorption mitigate PPPs in streams. acents Sparse vegetation fosters dispersion. acents Dense vegetation fosters mass retention. acents Compound related and time limited mass retention compensates diminished dispersion. Article History: Received 11 September 2013; Revised 21 January 2014; Accepted 4 February 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Handling Editor: X. Cao
    Keywords: Closed Experimental Ecosystems
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, March, 2014, Vol.186, p.136(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.11.028 Byline: Gabriela KalAikova, Dominic Englert, Ricki R. Rosenfeldt, Frank Seitz, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh Abstract: Although nanoparticle production and application increases continuously, their implications in species interactions, especially in combination with other environmental stressors, are rarely assessed. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of 2 mg/L titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO.sub.2; 〈100 nm) on the interaction between the prey Ephemerella ignita (Ephemeroptera) and the predator Gammarus fossarum (Amphipoda) over 96 h considering UV-irradiation at field relevant levels (approximately 11.4 W/m.sup.2) as an additional environmental factor (n = 16). At the same time, gammarid's consumption of an alternative food source, i.e. leaf discs, was assessed. All endpoints covered were not affected by nTiO.sub.2 alone, while the combination of nTiO.sub.2 and UV caused a reduction in gammarid's predation (68%), leaf consumption (60%) and body weight (22%). These effects were most likely triggered by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species by nTiO.sub.2. The present study, hence, highlights the importance to cover UV-irradiation during the risk assessment of nanoparticles. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau, Germany (b) Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, AA kerAeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (c) Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lennart Hjelms vag 9, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden Article History: Received 24 September 2013; Revised 6 November 2013; Accepted 18 November 2013
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Titanium Dioxide
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    In: Freshwater Biology, April 2014, Vol.59(4), pp.761-776
    Description: Reconstructing the phylogeographic history of a species can aid in defining areas of conservation priority. For freshwater species, historical river structure plays a significant role in explaining genetic differentiation and population structure. However, human‐induced translocations can erase the natural genetic structure, especially for species of commercial interest such as the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus). Our aim was to reconstruct the current genetic structure of the endangered noble crayfish in central Europe to identify refugial areas that are hotspots of genetic diversity. We analysed a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the 16S rRNA from 540 noble crayfish specimens from 156 sampling sites distributed around five European sea basins. Additionally, we conducted a microsatellite analysis of 289 individuals from 22 sites. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed genetically relatively homogenous populations in central Europe that had been influenced by anthropogenic translocations. However, some areas (Eider catchment in northern Germany and Rhineland‐Palatinate in south‐western Germany) show a distinct genetic structure with endemic haplotypes and private alleles indicating (i) that these areas were refugia for A. astacus in central Europe and (ii) that these populations have not been subject to anthropogenic translocations. Further, we found the highest genetic diversity in the Black Sea basin and particularly high differentiation between populations from the western Balkans and the remaining Black Sea populations. The split between Western Balkan and the remaining European populations is estimated to have occurred approximately 700 k years before present, whereas remaining differentiations occurred within the last 450 k years. Using migration modelling, we detected that the North Sea basin and the Baltic Sea basin were colonised independently via different colonisation paths from the eastern Black Sea basin, while the western Balkans did not contribute to this colonisation. Our results suggest the existence of at least two refugial areas in south‐eastern Europe. To conserve maximum genetic diversity, conservation priorities for noble crayfish should focus on the south‐eastern European genetic hotspots and on populations in central Europe that hold an autochthonous genetic structure (e.g. Langsee in the Eider catchment area). We further propose that each river catchment should form a separate management unit to reduce anthropogenic genetic homogenisation.
    Keywords: Human‐Mediated Translocation ; Microsatellite Analysis ; Migration Model ; Mitochondrial ; Refugial Areas
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Sept 15, 2014, Vol.493, p.891(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.092 Byline: Frank Seitz, Ricki R. Rosenfeldt, Sandra Schneider, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh Abstract: Nanoparticle toxicity depends amongst others on particle characteristics and nanoparticle behavior during their aquatic life cycle. Aquatic organisms may be exposed to nanoparticle agglomerates of varying size, while lager agglomerates after settling rather affect benthic organisms. In this context, the present study systematically examined the role of particle characteristics, i.e. crystalline structure composition (anatase as well as mixture of anatase-rutile), initial particle size (55-, 100-, and 140-nm) and surface area, in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO.sub.2) to the pelagic filter feeder Daphnia magna (n=4) and the benthic amphipod Gammarus fossarum (n=30). Smaller initial particle sizes (i.e. 55-nm) and anatase based particles showed an approximately 90% lower Daphnia EC.sub.50-value compared to its respective counterpart. Most importantly, particle surface normalized EC.sub.50-values significantly differed for nanoparticles equal to or below 100 nm in size from 140-nm sized particles. Hence, these data suggest that the reactive initial surface area may explain the ecotoxicological potential of different particle size classes only if their size is smaller or around 100nm. In contrast to Daphnia, Gammarus was not affected by nTiO.sub.2 concentrations of up to 5.00mg/L, irrespective of their characteristics. This indicates fundamental differences in the toxicity of nTiO.sub.2 during its aquatic life cycle mediated by alterations in their characteristics over time. Article History: Received 27 May 2014; Revised 19 June 2014; Accepted 20 June 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: D. Barcelo
    Keywords: Nanoparticles -- Analysis ; Crystal Structure -- Analysis ; Titanium Dioxide -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    In: Freshwater Biology, December 2014, Vol.59(12), pp.2645-2655
    Description: Biodiversity is globally threatened by the replacement of native species by invasive species and ensuing changes in ecosystem functioning. Although trophic linkages between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems have received attention, effects of aquatic invasive species on the flow of resource subsidies have been considered only recently. We examined how the effects of one of the most invasive macroinvertebrate species in European waterways, the amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus, extend from streams to the terrestrial food web. We quantified aquatic emergence and the contribution of aquatic resources to the diets of two riparian spider taxa in relation to the density of D. villosus. Our results indicated that the effects of this invasive species carry over to the terrestrial system via cross‐ecosystem flow of resource subsidy. The contribution of aquatic resources to the diet of the terrestrial web‐building spider Tetragnatha decreased from 60% at low densities of D. villosus to 10% at a D. villosus density 〉5000 individuals m−2. This correlates with a decreasing emergence rate of merolimnic midges (species with an aquatic larval phase) from 12 to 〈3 mg dry biomass m−2 day−1 at the respective densities of D. villosus. The magnitude of biomass flow from the aquatic to the terrestrial ecosystem is most likely decreased by D. villosus, and this decrease extends to the diet of riparian web‐building spiders. Effects of this aquatic invader may also extend to a decoupling of the terrestrial ecosystem from the aquatic ecosystem in terms of subsidy flux.
    Keywords: Aquatic–Terrestrial Interaction ; Dikerogammarus Villosus ; Riparian Spider ; Stable Isotopes ; Tetragnatha
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 September 2014, Vol.493, pp.891-897
    Description: Nanoparticle toxicity depends amongst others on particle characteristics and nanoparticle behavior during their aquatic life cycle. Aquatic organisms may be exposed to nanoparticle agglomerates of varying size, while lager agglomerates after settling rather affect benthic organisms. In this context, the present study systematically examined the role of particle characteristics, i.e. crystalline structure composition (anatase as well as mixture of anatase-rutile), initial particle size (55-, 100-, and 140-nm) and surface area, in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO ) to the pelagic filter feeder (n = 4) and the benthic amphipod (n = 30). Smaller initial particle sizes (i.e. 55-nm) and anatase based particles showed an approximately 90% lower EC -value compared to its respective counterpart. Most importantly, particle surface normalized EC -values significantly differed for nanoparticles equal to or below 100 nm in size from 140-nm sized particles. Hence, these data suggest that the reactive initial surface area may explain the ecotoxicological potential of different particle size classes only if their size is smaller or around 100 nm. In contrast to , was not affected by nTiO concentrations of up to 5.00 mg/L, irrespective of their characteristics. This indicates fundamental differences in the toxicity of nTiO during its aquatic life cycle mediated by alterations in their characteristics over time.
    Keywords: Daphnia Magna ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Crystallinity ; Toxicity ; Crustacea ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, August 2014, Vol.51(4), pp.958-967
    Description: Molecular genetic methods continuously uncover cryptic lineages harboured by various species. However, from an applied perspective, it remains unclear whether and to which extent such a genetic diversity affects biological traits (e.g. ecological, behavioural and physiological characteristics) and environmental management. We assessed potential deviations regarding the trait ‘environmental stress tolerance’ using individuals from five field populations of each of two cryptic lineages (called A and B) comprised under the nominal species Gammarus fossarum. We used ammonia as a chemical stressor while assessing the feeding rate on leaf discs as a measure of sublethal response. In this context, we established a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay to allow a rapid identification of the lineages. We observed a biologically meaningful and statistically significant twofold higher overall tolerance of one cryptic lineage, lineage B, over the other. Confounding factors that may have the potential to influence the test results, such as life stage, sex, season of collection, parasitism, physiological status of organisms and upstream land‐use patterns of the river catchments, were either controlled for or displayed only minor deviations between lineages. Synthesis and applications. The trait differences observed in the present study seem to be mainly explained by the considerable genetic differentiation between cryptic lineages of one nominal species. Although traits other than tolerance have been minimally investigated in this context, this study indicates implications in the reliability and quality of environmental monitoring and management if cryptic lineage complexes are ignored. The trait differences observed in the present study seem to be mainly explained by the considerable genetic differentiation between cryptic lineages of one nominal species. Although traits other than tolerance have been minimally investigated in this context, this study indicates implications in the reliability and quality of environmental monitoring and management if cryptic lineage complexes are ignored.
    Keywords: Environmental Management ; Gammarus ; Genetic Differentiation ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Nominal Species ; Rflp ; Sensitivity
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, July 2014, Vol.107, pp.13-22
    Description: Quantitative information on the processes leading to the retention of plant protection products (PPPs) in surface waters is not available, particularly for flow-through systems. The influence of aquatic vegetation on the hydraulic- and sorption-mediated mitigation processes of three PPPs (triflumuron, pencycuron, and penflufen; log 3.3–4.9) in 45-m slow-flowing stream mesocosms was investigated. Peak reductions were 35–38% in an unvegetated stream mesocosm, 60–62% in a sparsely vegetated stream mesocosm (13% coverage with ), and in a similar range of 57–69% in a densely vegetated stream mesocosm (100% coverage). Between 89% and 93% of the measured total peak reductions in the sparsely vegetated stream can be explained by an increase of vegetation-induced dispersion (estimated with the one-dimensional solute transport model OTIS), while 7–11% of the peak reduction can be attributed to sorption processes. However, dispersion contributed only 59–71% of the peak reductions in the densely vegetated stream mesocosm, where 29% to 41% of the total peak reductions can be attributed to sorption processes. In the densely vegetated stream, 8–27% of the applied PPPs, depending on the log values of the compounds, were temporarily retained by macrophytes. Increasing PPP recoveries in the aqueous phase were accompanied by a decrease of PPP concentrations in macrophytes indicating kinetic desorption over time. This is the first study to provide quantitative data on how the interaction of dispersion and sorption, driven by aquatic macrophytes, influences the mitigation of PPP concentrations in flowing vegetated stream systems.
    Keywords: Pesticide ; Plant Protection Product ; Dispersion ; Sorption ; Vegetated Stream Mesoscosms ; Tracer ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 06 May 2014, Vol.48(9), pp.5347-8
    Keywords: Models, Theoretical ; Fungicides, Industrial -- Analysis ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, March 2014, Vol.186, pp.136-140
    Description: Although nanoparticle production and application increases continuously, their implications in species interactions, especially in combination with other environmental stressors, are rarely assessed. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of 2 mg/L titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO ; 〈100 nm) on the interaction between the prey (Ephemeroptera) and the predator (Amphipoda) over 96 h considering UV-irradiation at field relevant levels (approximately 11.4 W/m ) as an additional environmental factor (  = 16). At the same time, gammarid's consumption of an alternative food source, i.e. leaf discs, was assessed. All endpoints covered were not affected by nTiO alone, while the combination of nTiO and UV caused a reduction in gammarid's predation (68%), leaf consumption (60%) and body weight (22%). These effects were most likely triggered by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species by nTiO . The present study, hence, highlights the importance to cover UV-irradiation during the risk assessment of nanoparticles. UV-irradiation influences nanoparticles' ecotoxicity rising concerns about adverse effects in trophic interactions and ecosystem functions.
    Keywords: Gammarid ; Mayfly ; Energy Transfer ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Sunlight ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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