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  • 2015  (292)
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  • 2015  (292)
  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Esprit de Corps, 2015, Vol.22(7), p.61(1)
    Keywords: Weddings
    ISSN: 1194-2266
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cell, 05 November 2015, Vol.163(4), pp.799-810
    Description: Recent advances in single-cell sequencing hold great potential for exploring biological systems with unprecedented resolution. Sequencing the genome of individual cells can reveal somatic mutations and allows the investigation of clonal dynamics. Single-cell transcriptome sequencing can elucidate the cell type composition of a sample. However, single-cell sequencing comes with major technical challenges and yields complex data output. In this Primer, we provide an overview of available methods and discuss experimental design and single-cell data analysis. We hope that these guidelines will enable a growing number of researchers to leverage the power of single-cell sequencing. As the applications and accessibility of single-cell sequencing approaches expand, a number of tenets regarding experimental design and data analysis are important to keep in mind.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0092-8674
    E-ISSN: 1097-4172
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 10 September 2015, Vol.525(7568), pp.251-5
    Description: Understanding the development and function of an organ requires the characterization of all of its cell types. Traditional methods for visualizing and isolating subpopulations of cells are based on messenger RNA or protein expression of only a few known marker genes. The unequivocal identification of a specific marker gene, however, poses a major challenge, particularly if this cell type is rare. Identifying rare cell types, such as stem cells, short-lived progenitors, cancer stem cells, or circulating tumour cells, is crucial to acquire a better understanding of normal or diseased tissue biology. To address this challenge we first sequenced the transcriptome of hundreds of randomly selected cells from mouse intestinal organoids, cultured self-organizing epithelial structures that contain all cell lineages of the mammalian intestine. Organoid buds, like intestinal crypts, harbour stem cells that continuously differentiate into a variety of cell types, occurring at widely different abundances. Since available computational methods can only resolve more abundant cell types, we developed RaceID, an algorithm for rare cell type identification in complex populations of single cells. We demonstrate that this algorithm can resolve cell types represented by only a single cell in a population of randomly sampled organoid cells. We use this algorithm to identify Reg4 as a novel marker for enteroendocrine cells, a rare population of hormone-producing intestinal cells. Next, we use Reg4 expression to enrich for these rare cells and investigate the heterogeneity within this population. RaceID confirmed the existence of known enteroendocrine lineages, and moreover discovered novel subtypes, which we subsequently validated in vivo. Having validated RaceID we then applied the algorithm to ex vivo-isolated Lgr5-positive stem cells and their direct progeny. We find that Lgr5-positive cells represent a homogenous abundant population of stem cells mixed with a rare population of Lgr5-positive secretory cells. We envision broad applicability of our method for discovering rare cell types and the corresponding marker genes in healthy and diseased organs.
    Keywords: Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Cell Separation -- Methods ; Intestine, Small -- Cytology ; RNA, Messenger -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 18 June 2015, Vol.522(7556), pp.324-6
    Description: Interplanetary dust particles hit the surfaces of airless bodies in the Solar System, generating charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds that form dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, but have hitherto not been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces. High-altitude Apollo 15 and 17 observations of a 'horizon glow' indicated a putative population of high-density small dust particles near the lunar terminators, although later orbital observations yielded upper limits on the abundance of such particles that were a factor of about 10(4) lower than that necessary to produce the Apollo results. Here we report observations of a permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon, caused by impacts of high-speed cometary dust particles on eccentric orbits, as opposed to particles of asteroidal origin following near-circular paths striking the Moon at lower speeds. The density of the lunar ejecta cloud increases during the annual meteor showers, especially the Geminids, because the lunar surface is exposed to the same stream of interplanetary dust particles. We expect all airless planetary objects to be immersed in similar tenuous clouds of dust.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Physics;
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 5
    In: Australian Economic Review, June 2015, Vol.48(2), pp.205-208
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8462.12113/abstract Byline: Nicholas Gruen ***** No abstract is available for this article. ***** Article Note: Lateral Economics, Victoria 3207 Australia; email 〈 ngruen@lateraleconomics.com.au.
    Keywords: Central Banks;
    ISSN: 0004-9018
    E-ISSN: 1467-8462
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  • 6
    In: Nature, 2015
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    Source: Nature Publishing Group
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 2015, pp.urn:issn:0028-0836
    Description: Understanding the development and function of an organ requires the characterization of all of its cell types. Traditional methods for visualizing and isolating subpopulations of cells are based on messenger RNA or protein expression of only a few known marker genes. The unequivocal identification of a specific marker gene, however, poses a major challenge, particularly if this cell type is rare. Identifying rare cell types, such as stem cells, short-lived progenitors, cancer stem cells, or circulating tumour cells, is crucial to acquire a better understanding of normal or diseased tissue biology. To address this challenge we first sequenced the transcriptome of hundreds of randomly selected cells from mouse intestinal organoids, cultured self-organizing epithelial structures that contain all cell lineages of the mammalian intestine. Organoid buds, like intestinal crypts, harbour stem cells that continuously differentiate into a variety of cell types, occurring at widely different abundances. Since available computational methods can only resolve more abundant cell types, we developed RaceID, an algorithm for rare cell type identification in complex populations of single cells. We demonstrate that this algorithm can resolve cell types represented by only a single cell in a population of randomly sampled organoid cells. We use this algorithm to identify Reg4 as a novel marker for enteroendocrine cells, a rare population of hormone-producing intestinal cells. Next, we use Reg4 expression to enrich for these rare cells and investigate the heterogeneity within this population. RaceID confirmed the existence of known enteroendocrine lineages, and moreover discovered novel subtypes, which we subsequently validated in vivo. Having validated RaceID we then applied the algorithm to ex vivo-isolated Lgr5-positive stem cells and their direct progeny. We find that Lgr5-positive cells represent a homogenous abundant population of stem cells mixed with a rare population of Lgr5-positive secretory cells. We envision broad applicability of our method for discovering rare cell types and the corresponding marker genes in healthy and diseased organs.
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(7), p.e0131839
    Description: Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM).Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period.Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p〈0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042).Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, April 27, 2015, Vol.385, p.S25
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60820-0 Byline: Phil Hider, Leona Wilson, John Rose, Thomas G Weiser, Russell Gruen, Stephen W Bickler Abstract: Surgery is a crucial component of health systems, yet its actual contribution has been difficult to define. We aimed to link use of national hospital service with national epidemiological surveillance data to describe the use of surgical procedures in the management of a broad spectrum of conditions. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Population Health, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand (b) Perioperative Mortality Review Committee, Health Quality and Safety Commission, Wellington, New Zealand (c) Department of Anesthesia, Hutt Valley District Health Board, Lower Hutt, New Zealand (d) Division of Pediatric Surgery, Rady Children's Hospital, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA (e) Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (f) Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA (g) The Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
    Keywords: Mortality – New Zealand ; Prevalence Studies (Epidemiology) – Health Aspects
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, April 27, 2015, Vol.385, p.S25
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60820-0 Byline: Phil Hider, Leona Wilson, John Rose, Thomas G Weiser, Russell Gruen, Stephen W Bickler Abstract: Surgery is a crucial component of health systems, yet its actual contribution has been difficult to define. We aimed to link use of national hospital service with national epidemiological surveillance data to describe the use of surgical procedures in the management of a broad spectrum of conditions. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Population Health, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand (b) Perioperative Mortality Review Committee, Health Quality and Safety Commission, Wellington, New Zealand (c) Department of Anesthesia, Hutt Valley District Health Board, Lower Hutt, New Zealand (d) Division of Pediatric Surgery, Rady Children's Hospital, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA (e) Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (f) Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA (g) The Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
    Keywords: Mortality -- New Zealand ; Prevalence Studies (Epidemiology) -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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