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  • 2015  (10)
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  • 2015  (10)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: BBA - Biomembranes, November 2015, Vol.1848(11), pp.3101-3111
    Description: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are at the front-line of host defense during infection and play critical roles both in reducing the microbial load early during infection and in linking innate to adaptive immunity. However, successful pathogens have developed mechanisms to resist AMPs. Although considerable progress has been made in elucidating AMP-resistance mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, less is known regarding the in vivo significance of such resistance. Nevertheless, progress has been made in this area, largely by using murine models and, in two instances, human models of infection. Herein, we review progress on the use of in vivo infection models in AMP research and discuss the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been established by in vivo studies to contribute to microbial infection. We posit that in vivo infection models are essential tools for investigators to understand the significance to pathogenesis of genetic changes that impact levels of bacterial susceptibility to AMPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial Peptides ; Cell Envelope Modifications ; In Vivo Models ; Pathogenesis ; Resistance Mechanisms ; Transporters ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0005-2736
    E-ISSN: 1879-2642
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2015, Vol.10(4), pp.e0124373
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi resists the cytotoxic effects of human antimicrobial peptides (APs), including α-defensins, β-defensins, and the cathelicidin LL-37. Resistance to LL-37, mediated by the sensitive to antimicrobial peptide (Sap) transporter, is required for H. ducreyi virulence in humans. Cationic APs are attracted to the negatively charged bacterial cell surface. In other gram-negative bacteria, modification of lipopolysaccharide or lipooligosaccharide (LOS) by the addition of positively charged moieties, such as phosphoethanolamine (PEA), confers AP resistance by means of electrostatic repulsion. H. ducreyi LOS has PEA modifications at two sites, and we identified three genes (lptA, ptdA, and ptdB) in H. ducreyi with homology to a family of bacterial PEA transferases. We generated non-polar, unmarked mutants with deletions in one, two, or all three putative PEA transferase genes. The triple mutant was significantly more susceptible to both α- and β-defensins; complementation of all three genes restored parental levels of AP resistance. Deletion of all three PEA transferase genes also resulted in a significant increase in the negativity of the mutant cell surface. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that LptA was required for PEA modification of lipid A; PtdA and PtdB did not affect PEA modification of LOS. In human inoculation experiments, the triple mutant was as virulent as its parent strain. While this is the first identified mechanism of resistance to α-defensins in H. ducreyi, our in vivo data suggest that resistance to cathelicidin LL-37 may be more important than defensin resistance to H. ducreyi pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics ; Drug Resistance, Bacterial -- Genetics ; Ethanolaminephosphotransferase -- Genetics ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Genetics ; Lipid A -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Microbe Magazine, 01/01/2015, Vol.10(1), pp.39-40
    ISSN: 1558-7452
    E-ISSN: 1558-7460
    Source: American Society for Microbiology (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 2015, Vol.10(9), p.e0137935
    Keywords: Correction
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, March 18, 2015, Vol.10(3), p.e0120016
    Description: Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state-and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species.
    Keywords: Trout – Laws, Regulations and Rules ; Marijuana Trade – Laws, Regulations and Rules ; Water Resources – Laws, Regulations and Rules ; Streamflow – Laws, Regulations and Rules ; Marijuana – Laws, Regulations and Rules
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: International Psychogeriatrics, 2015, Vol.27(3), pp.471-479
    Description: ABSTRACT Background: Music can be therapeutic to people with dementia; however, little is known about its effect on the family carers. This project aimed to (1) assess the effects of MP3 player use by a person with dementia on caregivers’ mental health and wellbeing, including their self-care and health-promoting behavior and (2) determine whether MP3 player use increases caregivers’ self-reported capacity to cope with their role. Methods: A pre–post quantitative and qualitative design was used. Carers completed a survey prior to commencing and four weeks after using the player. The survey included validated measures to assess the level of stress and coping among carers. Carers also kept a diary of the way they used the MP3 player. Half of the carers were interviewed about their experiences at the end of the study. Results: Of 59 people who started using the MP3 player, 51 carers completed the four-week study period and surveys. Use of the MP3 player significantly decreased psychological distress, significantly improved the mental health and wellbeing of carers, significantly increased caregiver self-efficacy to manage symptoms of dementia, and was reported to provide valued respite from the high level of vigilance required for caring for a person with dementia. Conclusion: An MP3 player loaded with music can be a low cost and relatively simple and effective additional strategy to support families caring for people with dementia in the community.
    Keywords: Technology; Music; Dementia; Family Caregiver; Burden
    ISSN: 1041-6102
    E-ISSN: 1741-203X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 03 July 2015, Vol.19(3), pp.217-243
    Description: Bisexuals are at greater risk for poor mental health compared with heterosexual, gay, and lesbian people. This increased risk has been attributed to biphobia yet the relationship between biphobia and mental health has been understudied. Data were collected from an Ontario-wide survey of bisexuals,...
    Keywords: Bisexual ; Anxiety ; Biphobia ; Resilience ; Canada
    ISSN: 1935-9705
    E-ISSN: 1935-9713
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bisexuality, 02 January 2015, Vol.15(1), pp.69-81
    Description: Research suggests an elevated level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among bisexuals. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C) is a self-report measure used to assess PTSD symptoms in nonmilitary persons, closely following Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)...
    Keywords: Pcl-C ; Bisexual ; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ; Sociology & Social History ; Women'S Studies
    ISSN: 1529-9716
    E-ISSN: 1529-9724
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement, 2015, Vol.120, pp.55-61
    Description: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a leading cause of death and disability and is often complicated by cerebral vasospasm (CV). Conventional management to prevent CV includes bedrest; however, inactivity places the patient at risk for nonneurological complications. We investigated the effect of mild exercise after SAH in clinical and laboratory settings. Clinical: Data from 80 patients with SAH were analyzed retrospectively. After aneurysms were secured, physical therapy was initiated as tolerated. CV and complications were compared by the timing of active physical therapy. Laboratory: 18 Rodents were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) SAH without exercise, and (3) SAH plus mild exercise. On day 5, brainstems were removed and analyzed for the injury marker inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Clinical: Mild exercise before day 4 significantly lowered the incidence of symptomatic CV compared with the nonexercised group. There was no difference in the incidence of additional complications based upon exercise. Laboratory: Staining for iNOS was significantly higher in the SAH group than the control group, but there was no difference between exercised and nonexercised SAH groups, confirming that exercise did not promote neuronal injury. Early mobilization significantly reduced clinical CV. The relationship should be studied further in a prospective trial with defined exercise regimens.
    Keywords: Exercise -- Physiology ; Physical Conditioning, Animal -- Physiology ; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage -- Complications ; Vasospasm, Intracranial -- Etiology
    ISSN: 0065-1419
    E-ISSN: 21978395
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 10
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