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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, December 2016, Vol.64, pp.96-97
    Description: In a recent article in this journal, Duffy et al. (2016) present a well thought-out list of points to pay attention to in order to maximize the chances that a manuscript, submitted for publication, sail through the review process and eventually get printed. There is no doubt that this thorough...
    Keywords: Nursing
    ISSN: 0020-7489
    E-ISSN: 1873-491X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, December 2016, Vol.103, pp.320-326
    Description: Soil biodiversity has become a major area of research over the last decade, and the literature on the topic has expanded tremendously in recent years, so much so that a huge number of publications now deal with soil biodiversity every year. This article does not attempt the formidable task of drawing a general picture of where the field is at the moment, but it zeroes in instead on two perspectives that seem to have gathered momentum over time and raise concern about future progress. The first perspective involves the implicit assumption that to make sense of either the species-, genetic-, or functional biodiversity of soils, it is not necessary to consider in detail the features of (micro)habitats provided by soils to organisms, and that analysis of the information provided by extracted DNA or RNA suffices. The second perspective is associated with research on the effect of the physical and chemical characteristics of microhabitats on the activity of microorganisms. It basically hypothesizes that all microorganisms behave similarly, and therefore that observations made mostly with bacteria can be extended readily to all organisms, ignoring taxonomic biodiversity. To illustrate both perspectives, we provide a number of illustrative examples from the relevant literature and analyze them briefly. We argue that these two perspectives, if they spread, will hinder progress in our understanding of soil biodiversity at any level, and especially of its impact on soil processes. In order to return to a more fruitful middle ground, where both a variety of organisms and the characteristics of the microhabitats where they reside are carefully considered, several routes can be envisaged, but our experience suggests that an emphasis on genuinely interdisciplinary research is crucial.
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2016, Vol.15(3), p.0
    ISSN: Vadose Zone Journal
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 June 2016, Vol.271, pp.254-255
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.11.025 Byline: Philippe C. Baveye, Magdeline Laba Article History: Received 18 September 2015; Accepted 19 November 2015
    Keywords: Proximal Sensing ; Spatial Variability ; Soil Contamination ; Remediation ; Toxicology ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, 01 June 2016, Vol.4
    Description: Over the last few years, considerable attention has been devoted in the scientific literature and in the media to the concept of ecosystem services of soils. The monetary valuation of these services, demanded by many governments and international agencies, is often depicted as a necessary condition for the preservation of the natural capital that soils represent. This focus on soil services is framed in the context of a general interest in ecosystem services that allegedly started in 1997, and took off in earnest after 2005. The careful analysis of the literature proposed in this article shows that, in fact, interest in the multifunctionality of soils emerged already in the mid-60s, at a time when hundreds of researchers worldwide were trying, and largely failing, to figure out how to put price tags meaningfully on nature's services. Soil scientists, since, have tried to better understand various functions/services of soils, as well as their possible relation with key soil characteristics, like biodiversity. They have also tried to make progress on the challenging quantification of soil functions/services. However, researchers have shown very little interest in monetary valuation, undoubtedly in part because it is not clear what economic and financial markets might do with prices of soil functions/services, even if we could somehow come up with such numbers, and because there is no assurance at all, based on neoclassical economic theory, that markets would manage soil resources optimally. Instead of monetary valuation, focus in the literature has been put on decision-making methods, like Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN), which do not require the systematic monetization of soil functions/services and easily accommodate deliberative approaches involving a variety of stakeholders. A prerequisite to progress in such public deliberations is that participants be very cognizant of the extreme relevance of soils to many aspects of their daily life. We argue that, as long as this prerequisite is satisfied, the combination of deliberative decision-making methods and of a sound scientific approach to the quantification of soil functions/services is a very promising avenue to manage effectively and ethically the priceless heritage that soils constitute.
    Keywords: Decision Making ; Sustainability ; Valuation ; Commodification ; Land Use and Management ; Ecosystem Services ; Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 2296-665X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, 01 November 2016, Vol.4
    Description: When confronted with a great piece of art or research, one often wonders about what made it possible, what method was used by its author, in part so one can try to emulate it in one's own activities. Upon the retirement of Garrison Sposito after a long and very distinguished career, we considered that, as former doctoral students of Gary's, we were in a privileged position to write, in our own words and from our perspective, an account of the various key ingredients of his very successful method. In the following, we identify and review six components of this method, respectively his thorough bibliographical coverage, extreme rigor in research, meticulous crafting of manuscripts, parallel focus on several disciplines, firm conviction that it is not necessary to go out of one's way to promote good ideas or competent people, and finally his reluctance to jump on bandwagons. We hope that this analysis of the pillars of Gary's method, at least as we see them, will not only help pay tribute to an outstanding thinker, but also inspire and provide a roadmap to all those who strive to better themselves as researchers.
    Keywords: Publishing ; Epistemology ; Scientific Research ; Mentoring ; Scientific Method ; Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 2296-665X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 May 2016, Vol.270, pp.10-20
    Description: Steelmaking slag (SS) is an industrial byproduct generated through metal refining processes. It has been applied as an agent to stabilize farmland soils contaminated both by arsenic and heavy metals in the Republic of Korea. However, the efficacy of this technique has not been established yet under anoxic conditions such as in the case of submerged rice paddy fields. Under anoxic conditions, As might be dissociated easily from solid surfaces where it is adsorbed reversibly. In this study, laboratory-scale column tests were conducted to artificially manipulate anoxic conditions in submerged paddy fields and we observed the release behavior of As and heavy metals, mainly cadmium (Cd). Limestone (LS) was also applied in the test for the purpose of comparison because it is usually applied as a common additive. The leachate samples were collected and chemical changes were monitored during the test period. Results suggest that anoxic conditions were developed during submersion, and that As or heavy metal fractions bound to ferrous (Fe)/manganese (Mn) oxides were easily dissociated. However, it was also shown that SS and LS significantly decreased the dissolution of Cd and As in the pore water; their removal rates in the SS-treated soil were 87% and 32%, respectively, of those in the control soil. On the other hand it appeared that SS was more effective than LS to stabilize Cd as well as As under submerged conditions. Therefore, SS might be an optimal stabilizing agent for dealing with As and other heavy metal contaminants in rice paddy soils that are periodically exposed to reducing environments.
    Keywords: Arsenic ; Column Test ; Limestone ; Rice Paddy ; Stabilization Method ; Steelmaking-Slag ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, November 2016, Vol.170, pp.157-166
    Description: Toxic metal pollution of agricultural soils caused by mining activities is a serious environmental problem in many parts of the world. To establish an appropriate remediation strategy to improve soil quality, it is essential to first monitor the metals in the soil to understand their distribution and behavioral characteristics. In this study, the concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in agricultural soil near abandoned gold mine sites in a region of South Korea (Chungyang county) were analyzed. A total of seven abandoned gold mines are located in this area. In November 2014, surface soil samples were collected from 200 locations across agricultural fields in the study site. Pollution sources were investigated using various statistical techniques, including multivariate statistical analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS), and the spatial distribution of metals and metalloids was determined. The results of cluster-, principal component-, and correlation analyses, as well as descriptive statistics, indicates that the metals can be divided into two groups. Cu, Ni, and Zn are derived from natural sources related to the parent materials in which the soil developed, whereas As, Cd, and Pb are shown to originate from abandoned gold mines. The results of this study clearly show that the movement and behavior of As, Cd, and Pb are governed mostly by the specific environment of the paddy field soil. Our results also show that these elements can be transported to the agricultural fields to up to 4 km or farther away from their source mines, and affect the surrounding environment. Accordingly, the most appropriate remediation strategy for paddy field soils that are polluted by toxic metals (and arsenic) due to mining activities would be one that takes into account their characteristics, in particular the fact that both oxidizing and reducing environments occur.
    Keywords: Abandoned Mine ; Distribution ; Farmland ; Metal(Loid)S ; Transport ; Paddy ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0375-6742
    E-ISSN: 1879-1689
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