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  • 2018  (12)
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  • 2018  (12)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), July 2018, Vol.48(7), pp.1761
    Description: The article Test-Retest Reliability and Interpretation of Common Concussion Assessment Tools.
    Keywords: Medicine & Public Health ; Sports Medicine ; Medicine;
    ISSN: 01121642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2018, Vol.48(5), pp.1255-1268
    Description: Background Concussion diagnosis is typically made through clinical examination and supported by performance on clinical assessment tools. Performance on commonly implemented and emerging assessment tools is known to vary between administrations, in the absence of concussion. Objective To evaluate the test-retest reliability of commonly implemented and emerging concussion assessment tools across a large nationally representative sample of student-athletes. Methods Participants ( n  = 4874) from the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium completed annual baseline assessments on two or three occasions. Each assessment included measures of self-reported concussion symptoms, motor control, brief and extended neurocognitive function, reaction time, oculomotor/oculovestibular function, and quality of life. Consistency between years 1 and 2 and 1 and 3 were estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients or Kappa and effect sizes (Cohen’s d ). Clinical interpretation guidelines were also generated using confidence intervals to account for non-normally distributed data. Results Reliability for the self-reported concussion symptoms, motor control, and brief and extended neurocognitive assessments from year 1 to 2 ranged from 0.30 to 0.72 while effect sizes ranged from 0.01 to 0.28 (i.e., small). The reliability for these same measures ranged from 0.34 to 0.66 for the year 1–3 interval with effect sizes ranging from 0.05 to 0.42 (i.e., small to less than medium). The year 1–2 reliability for the reaction time, oculomotor/oculovestibular function, and quality-of-life measures ranged from 0.28 to 0.74 with effect sizes from 0.01 to 0.38 (i.e., small to less than medium effects). Conclusions This investigation noted less than optimal reliability for most common and emerging concussion assessment tools. Despite this finding, their use is still necessitated by the absence of a gold standard diagnostic measure, with the ultimate goal of developing more refined and sound tools for clinical use. Clinical interpretation guidelines are provided for the clinician to apply with a degree of certainty in application. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s40279-017-0813-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Original Research Article;
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2018, Vol.48(7), pp.1761-1761
    Description: The article Test-Retest Reliability and Interpretation of Common Concussion Assessment Tools.
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2018, Vol.48(8), pp.1971-1985
    Description: Background Sport-related concussion and repetitive head impact exposure in contact sports continue to receive increased attention in public and medical spheres. The Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium, a multicenter cooperative, was established to study the natural history of concussion in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate student-athletes across 29 colleges and universities in the United States. The purpose of this investigation is to provide normative data from the CARE Consortium and evaluate for differences between sport categories. Methods NCAA student-athletes were evaluated annually for general demographics and sport-specific characteristics before the start of the competitive season. We collected demographic and medical history information and evaluated each student-athlete's neurocognitive function, neurological status, postural stability, and self-reported symptoms. Sports were categorized by the amount of contact typically associated with the sport (i.e., contact, limited contact, non-contact). Comparisons between the three sport categories for the evaluated variables were made using linear or zero inflated negative binomial regression models adjusted for gender, concussion history, and household income. Results Over a 2-year period (August 2014-July 2016), 15,681 NCAA athletes completed preseason evaluations. Overall, 53% of the athletes were in the contact sport group, 31% were in the limited contact group and 17% were in the non-contact group. After adjusting for covariates, there were statistically significant differences found between athlete groups, although the differences and effect sizes were small and not clinically significant. The contact sport group had better scores on Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment Testing (ImPACT®) visual and verbal memory, Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) symptom checklist, and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), but slower ImPACT reaction time and worse scores on Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC). Further, the data indicate that some ImPACT score distributions were noticeably different from those presented in the technical manual. Conclusions In this large, racially and socio-economically diverse cohort of male and female college athletes, we found no evidence that student-athletes participating in contact sports have clinically meaningful deficits in preseason cognitive and balance testing. They also did not report significantly more symptoms of psychological distress when compared with student-athletes in non-contact or limited contact sports. In addition, the data suggest potential limitations when using published ImPACT norms when evaluating injured athletes.
    Keywords: United States–Us ; Gender Differences ; Students ; Cognition ; Consortia ; Colleges & Universities ; Injury Prevention ; Medical Research ; Posture ; Demographics ; Reaction Time ; Brain Research ; Regression Analysis ; Regression Models ; Concussion ; Athletes ; Norms ; Cognitive Ability ; Statistical Analysis ; Contact Sports ; Pediatrics ; Concussion ; Memory ; Ultrasonic Testing ; College Football ; Consortia ; Data Collection ; Demography ; Stability Analysis ; Athletes ; Family Income ; Cognitive Ability ; Sports Injuries ; Traumatic Brain Injury ; Athletes ; Colleges & Universities ; National Collegiate Athletic Association–Ncaa;
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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  • 5
    In: Hepatology Communications, January 2018, Vol.2(1), pp.29-34
    Description: Only a subset of subjects with excessive alcohol consumption develops alcoholic liver disease (ALD). One of the major risk factors for ALD is the genetic variant of the patatin‐like phospholipase domain‐containing protein 3 () gene. Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages, and coffee consumption has been associated with lower levels of serum alanine aminotransferase. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of coffee drinking and rs738409 and their association with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) in a well‐characterized cohort of subjects from the Translational Research and Evolving Alcoholic Hepatitis Treatment consortium. AH subjects and heavy drinking controls without a history of liver disease who were enrolled between May 2013 and May 2016 were included (n = 339), and the details of alcohol and coffee consumption were assessed. The variant was determined among participants of European ancestry (n = 183). Relationships between baseline data and AH status were determined, and multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed. During the study period, 189 cases with AH and 150 heavy drinking controls were prospectively enrolled. The prevalence of regular coffee consumption was significantly lower in patients with AH compared to controls (20% versus 43%; 0.0001). The overall minor allele frequency of the variant was higher in AH cases. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that coffee consumption and PNPLA3 were significantly associated with AH status at baseline after adjusting for relevant patient characteristics. We found a higher prevalence of AH among heavy drinkers with G/G and G/C genotypes regardless of coffee consumption status and a higher prevalence of AH among heavy drinkers who were not regular coffee drinkers. These findings remained after considering relevant baseline patient characteristics. Further studies are needed to confirm our observation. ( 2018;2:29–34)
    Keywords: Brief Report ; Brief Reports;
    ISSN: 2471-254X
    E-ISSN: 2471-254X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Technology|Architecture + Design, 03 July 2018, Vol.2(2), pp.261-264
    Keywords: Architecture
    ISSN: 2475-1448
    E-ISSN: 2475-143X
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  • 7
    In: Hepatology, April 2018, Vol.67(4), pp.1284-1302
    Description: Intestinal dysbiosis is implicated in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). However, changes in the circulating microbiome, its association with the presence and severity of AH, and its functional relevance in AH is unknown. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes in the circulating microbiome were performed by sequencing bacterial DNA in subjects with moderate AH (MAH) (n = 18) or severe AH (SAH) (n = 19). These data were compared with heavy drinking controls (HDCs) without obvious liver disease (n = 19) and non–alcohol‐consuming controls (NACs, n = 20). The data were related to endotoxin levels and markers of monocyte activation. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis, inferred metagenomics, and predictive functional analysis using PICRUSt were performed. There was a significant increase in 16S copies/ng DNA both in MAH ( 〈 0.01) and SAH ( 〈 0.001) subjects. Compared with NACs, the relative abundance of phylum was significantly decreased in HDCs, MAH, and SAH ( 〈 0.001). In contrast, all alcohol‐consuming groups had enrichment with ; this was greatest for HDCs and decreased progressively in MAH and SAH. Subjects with SAH had significantly higher endotoxemia ( = 0.01). Compared with alcohol‐consuming groups, predictive functional metagenomics indicated an enrichment of bacteria with genes related to methanogenesis and denitrification. Furthermore, both HDCs and SAH showed activation of a type III secretion system that has been linked to gram‐negative bacterial virulence. Metagenomics in SAH versus NACs predicted increased isoprenoid synthesis via mevalonate and anthranilate degradation, known modulators of gram‐positive bacterial growth and biofilm production, respectively. Heavy alcohol consumption appears to be the primary driver of changes in the circulating microbiome associated with a shift in its inferred metabolic functions. (H 2018;67:1284‐1302).
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0270-9139
    E-ISSN: 1527-3350
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Marine and Petroleum Geology, May 2018, Vol.93, pp.409-421
    Description: Petroleum migration modeling is widely used to assess petroleum charge and fluid phase risk in exploration and appraisal. There are three principal migration methods: Darcy flow, invasion percolation, and flowpath (or ray tracing). Each method relies on different assumptions and yields different outcomes. This paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of these methods as they are implemented in PetroMod , providing a practical guide as to how and when to apply each migration method. Flowpath is the most simplistic and computationally fastest method and should only be applied when a quick screening is required. Invasion percolation delivers satisfactory results for most geological settings, from structurally and stratigraphically simple to complex, but does not consider expulsion from the source rock properly. Darcy flow is the preferred method for unconventional resource assessments and supports maximum downward migration. A traditional modeling approach is to use two methods, applying Darcy flow to tight rocks and flowpath to highly permeable rocks. Another combined method can be used in such a way that Darcy flow is applied to the source rock and invasion percolation to the carrier and reservoir beds. The latter seems to deliver best results in most geological settings, while also providing more realistic results of secondary migration losses.
    Keywords: Petroleum Geology ; Petroleum ; Basin Modeling ; Migration ; Darcy ; Flowpath ; Invasion Percolation ; Engineering ; Geology
    ISSN: 0264-8172
    E-ISSN: 1873-4073
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  • 9
    Language: Japanese
    In: Hepatology : official journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, 2018-08, Vol.13(2), pp.16-32
    Description: Material Type: 記事・論文
    ISSN: 18812546
    Source: Zassaku –(Japanese Periodicals Index) (National Diet Library of Japan)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Organic Geochemistry, September 2018, Vol.123, pp.1-16
    Description: With the increasing interest in unconventional resource plays, there have been important changes in the way how reservoirs and their attributes are assessed and characterized. Of particular relevance to the development of unconventional plays has been the focus on the assessment of organic porosity. A review of the available literature reveals contradictions with respect to where organic porosity develops (kerogen, bitumen, or pyrobitumen), when it develops with respect to hydrocarbon generation and cracking (within the oil window or beyond), its mode of formation (inherited or authigenic), the influence of organic carbon content, and the importance of organic porosity with respect to hydrocarbon storage and production. Many of these apparent contradictions appear to result from the nature of the data sets upon which the studies are based. Organic pore size generally limits the role that organic porosity plays in liquid-rich plays. From the available literature, it has become clear that there are number of issues that need to be clarified when addressing organic porosity. One such issue is terminology. There appears to be confusion in the usage of the terms kerogen, bitumen, and pyrobitumen. This confusion exists in the literature and reports prepared by various service providers for those engaged in the exploration and exploitation of unconventional resources. Another issue is the observed differences in the morphology of the organic pores (e.g., spongy, isolated bubbles, or fractures). Differences in pore morphology indicate multiple mechanisms for formation and/or growth of organic pores, suggesting more complexity to organic porosity development than often implied. For example, the spongy appearance of organic pores in some systems could reflect the amorphous character of some oil-prone kerogen, whereas the bubble pore character could be the result of degassing during the transition from the oil window into the gas window or an artifact of decompression and degassing as bitumen solidifies during core retrieval. Similarly, fractures could be a result of the conversion of oil to gas and the inability of the gas to escape or could be desiccation cracks, possibly formed after sample retrieval. Organic pores, if present in situ, increase space for hydrocarbon storage and increase surface area resulting in higher absorption capacity. However, the connectivity of these pores may be somewhat limited and may be dependent on the nature of the organic network, thus limiting their impact on permeability. A challenge when studying organic porosity is its observed variability within an individual reservoir. Very different spatial distribution of pores can occur between adjacent organic particles (e.g., macerals, solid bitumen) as well as within individual “macerals”. It has been suggested that this could be, in part, a result of organic–inorganic interactions although alternative interpretations have also been proposed. Further complicating the scientific understanding of organic porosity is the possibility that the act of studying the samples containing these pores may result in alteration of the rocks and the pores themselves. Therefore, observed organic pores may not be reflective of native conditions. The lack of a clear understanding of organic porosity development in unconventional mudstone reservoirs is by no means a surprise. Porosity and its development in conventional reservoirs have been studied since Sorby began the examination of sandstone thin sections in 1850 and is still under examination, while organic porosity has been studied for less than a decade. The focus of this study is to provide a review of porosity associated with the organic fraction, which may, in some shale-reservoirs, play a key role in hydrocarbon storage, migration, and production.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0146-6380
    E-ISSN: 1873-5290
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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