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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: mBio, 04/30/2019, Vol.10(2)
    Description: Proteins comprised of 50 or fewer amino acids have been shown to interact with and modulate the functions of larger proteins in a range of organisms. Despite the possible importance of small proteins, the true prevalence and capabilities of these regulators remain unknown as the small size of the proteins places serious limitations on their identification, purification, and characterization. Here, we present a ribosome profiling approach with stalled initiation complexes that led to the identification of 38 new small proteins.Small proteins consisting of 50 or fewer amino acids have been identified as regulators of larger proteins in bacteria and eukaryotes. Despite the importance of these molecules, the total number of small proteins remains unknown because conventional annotation pipelines usually exclude small open reading frames (smORFs). We previously identified several dozen small proteins in the model organism Escherichia coli using theoretical bioinformatic approaches based on sequence conservation and matches to canonical ribosome binding sites. Here, we present an empirical approach for discovering new proteins, taking advantage of recent advances in ribosome profiling in which antibiotics are used to trap newly initiated 70S ribosomes at start codons. This approach led to the identification of many novel initiation sites in intergenic regions in E. coli. We tagged 41 smORFs on the chromosome and detected protein synthesis for all but three. Not only are the corresponding genes intergenic but they are also found antisense to other genes, in operons, and overlapping other open reading frames (ORFs), some impacting the translation of larger downstream genes. These results demonstrate the utility of this method for identifying new genes, regardless of their genomic context.
    Keywords: Ribo-Seq ; Small Protein ; Alternate Orfs ; Antisense ; Genome Annotation ; Leader Peptide ; Biology;
    ISSN: mBio
    ISSN: 21612129
    E-ISSN: 2150-7511
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  • 2
    In: mBio, 2019, Vol.10(1)
    Description: The protein ProQ has recently been discovered as the centerpiece of a previously overlooked “third domain” of small RNA-mediated control of gene expression in bacteria. As in vitro work continues to reveal molecular mechanisms, it is also important to understand how ProQ affects the life cycle of bacterial pathogens as these pathogens infect eukaryotic cells. Here, we have determined how ProQ shapes Salmonella virulence and how the activities of this RNA-binding protein compare with those of Hfq, another central protein in RNA-based gene regulation in this and other bacteria. To this end, we apply global transcriptomics of pathogen and host cells during infection. In doing so, we reveal ProQ-dependent transcript changes in key virulence and host immune pathways. Moreover, we differentiate the roles of ProQ from those of Hfq during infection, for both coding and noncoding transcripts, and provide an important resource for those interested in ProQ-dependent small RNAs in enteric bacteria. ABSTRACT FinO domain proteins such as ProQ of the model pathogen Salmonella enterica have emerged as a new class of major RNA-binding proteins in bacteria. ProQ has been shown to target hundreds of transcripts, including mRNAs from many virulence regions, but its role, if any, in bacterial pathogenesis has not been studied. Here, using a Dual RNA-seq approach to profile ProQ-dependent gene expression changes as Salmonella infects human cells, we reveal dysregulation of bacterial motility, chemotaxis, and virulence genes which is accompanied by altered MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling in the host. Comparison with the other major RNA chaperone in Salmonella , Hfq, reinforces the notion that these two global RNA-binding proteins work in parallel to ensure full virulence. Of newly discovered infection-associated ProQ-bound small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs), we show that the 3′UTR-derived sRNA STnc540 is capable of repressing an infection-induced magnesium transporter mRNA in a ProQ-dependent manner. Together, this comprehensive study uncovers the relevance of ProQ for Salmonella pathogenesis and highlights the importance of RNA-binding proteins in regulating bacterial virulence programs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Molecular Biology And Physiology ; Editor'S Pick ; Hfq ; Noncoding Rna ; Proq ; Rna-Seq ; Bacterial Pathogen ; Posttranscriptional Control
    ISSN: 21612129
    E-ISSN: 2150-7511
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: mBio, 04/30/2019, Vol.10(2)
    Description: The ability of bacteria to sense and respond to environmental signals is critical for survival. Bacteria use cyclic dinucleotides as second messengers to regulate a number of physiological processes, such as the fundamental life style transition between motility and sessility (biofilm formation). cGAMP, which is synthesized by a dinucleotide cyclase called DncV, is a newly discovered second messenger involved in virulence and chemotaxis in the Vibrio cholerae biovar El Tor causing the current 7th cholera pandemic. However, to what extent cGAMP exists and participates in physiological processes in other bacteria is still unknown. In this study, we found an elevated cGAMP level to possibly regulate biofilm formation and motility in the animal commensal E. coli strain ECOR31. Thus, we detected a novel role for cGAMP signaling in regulation of physiological processes other than those previously reported in proteobacterial species.Cyclic dinucleotides (cDNs) act as intracellular second messengers, modulating bacterial physiology to regulate the fundamental life style transition between motility and sessility commonly known as biofilm formation. Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), synthesized by the dinucleotide cyclase DncV, is a newly discovered cDN second messenger involved in virulence and chemotaxis in Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor. Here we report a novel role for horizontally transferred DncV in cGAMP production and regulation of biofilm formation and motility in the animal commensal strain Escherichia coli ECOR31. ECOR31 expresses a semiconstitutive temperature-independent rdar (red, dry, and rough) morphotype on Congo red agar plates characterized by the extracellular matrix components cellulose and curli fimbriae which requires activation by the major biofilm regulator CsgD and cyclic di-GMP signaling. In contrast, C-terminal His-tagged DncV negatively regulates the rdar biofilm morphotype and cell aggregation via downregulation of csgD mRNA steady-state level. Furthermore, DncV sequentially promotes and inhibits adhesion to the abiotic surface after 24 h and 48 h of growth, respectively. DncV also suppresses swimming and swarming motility posttranscriptional of the class 1 flagellum regulon gene flhD. Purified DncV produced different cDNs, cyclic di-GMP, cyclic di-AMP, an unknown product(s), and the dominant species 3′3′-cGAMP. In vivo, only the 3′3′-cGAMP concentration was elevated upon short-term overexpression of dncV, making this work a first report on cGAMP production in E. coli. Regulation of rdar biofilm formation and motility upon overexpression of untagged DncV in combination with three adjacent cotransferred gene products suggests a novel temperature-dependent cGAMP signaling module in E. coli ECOR31.
    Keywords: Csgd ; Dncv ; Biofilm Formation ; Cgamp ; Cyclic Di-Gmp ; Motility ; Rdar ; Biology;
    ISSN: mBio
    ISSN: 21612129
    E-ISSN: 2150-7511
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  • 4
    In: mBio, 2019, Vol.10(3)
    Description: Dual RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) offers the promise of determining an interactome at a transcriptional level between a bacterium and the host but has yet to be done on any bacterial infection in human tissue. We performed dual RNA-seq and metabolomics analyses on wounded and infected sites following experimental infection of the arm with H. ducreyi . Our results suggest that H. ducreyi survives in an abscess by utilizing l -ascorbate as an alternative carbon source, possibly taking advantage of host ascorbic acid recycling, and that H. ducreyi also adapts by upregulating genes involved in anaerobic metabolism and inorganic ion and nutrient transport. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an interaction network between a bacterium and the human host at a site of infection. ABSTRACT A major gap in understanding infectious diseases is the lack of information about molecular interaction networks between pathogens and the human host. Haemophilus ducreyi causes the genital ulcer disease chancroid in adults and is a leading cause of cutaneous ulcers in children in the tropics. We developed a model in which human volunteers are infected on the upper arm with H. ducreyi until they develop pustules. To define the H. ducreyi and human interactome, we determined bacterial and host transcriptomic and host metabolomic changes in pustules. We found that in vivo H. ducreyi transcripts were distinct from those in the inocula, as were host transcripts in pustule and wounded control sites. Many of the upregulated H. ducreyi genes were found to be involved in ascorbic acid and anaerobic metabolism and inorganic ion/nutrient transport. The top 20 significantly expressed human pathways showed that all were involved in immune responses. We generated a bipartite network for interactions between host and bacterial gene transcription; multiple positively correlated networks contained H. ducreyi genes involved in anaerobic metabolism and host genes involved with the immune response. Metabolomic studies showed that pustule and wounded samples had different metabolite compositions; the top ion pathway involved ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, which correlated with the H. ducreyi transcriptional response and upregulation of host genes involved in ascorbic acid recycling. These data show that an interactome exists between H. ducreyi and the human host and suggest that H. ducreyi exploits the metabolic niche created by the host immune response.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Host-Microbe Biology ; Dual Rna-Seq ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Human Infection Model ; Interactome ; Metabolome
    ISSN: 21612129
    E-ISSN: 2150-7511
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