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  • Alfarraj, Saleh  (14)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental botany, June 2015, Vol.66(11), pp.3429
    Keywords: Botany;
    ISSN: 00220957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2014, Vol.174(3), pp.839-851
    Description: Plant carnivory represents an exceptional means to acquire N. Snap traps of Dionaea muscipula serve two functions, and provide both N and photosynthate. Using 13 C/ 15 N-labelled insect powder, we performed feeding experiments with Dionaea plants that differed in physiological state and N status (spring vs. autumn plants). We measured the effects of 15 N uptake on light-saturated photosynthesis ( A max ), dark respiration ( R D ) and growth. Depending on N status, insect capture briefly altered the dynamics of R D / A max , reflecting high energy demand during insect digestion and nutrient uptake, followed by enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Organic N acquired from insect prey was immediately redistributed, in order to support swift renewal of traps and thereby enhance probability of prey capture. Respiratory costs associated with permanent maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery were thereby minimized. Dionaea’s strategy of N utilization is commensurate with the random capture of large prey, occasionally transferring a high load of organic nutrients to the plant. Our results suggest that physiological adaptations to unpredictable resource availability are essential for Dionaea’s success with regards to a carnivorous life style.
    Keywords: Plant carnivory ; Cost/benefit ; Photosynthetic efficiency ; Respiration ; Nitrogen uptake
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 3
    In: New Phytologist, April 2017, Vol.214(2), pp.597-606
    Description: The present study was performed to elucidate the fate of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) derived from protein of prey caught by carnivorous Dionaea muscipula. For this, traps were fed 13C/15N‐glutamine (Gln). The release of 13CO2 was continuously monitored by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. After 46 h, the allocation of C and N label into different organs was determined and tissues were subjected to metabolome, proteome and transcriptome analyses. Nitrogen of Gln fed was already separated from its C skeleton in the decomposing fluid secreted by the traps. Most of the Gln‐C and Gln‐N recovered inside plants were localized in fed traps. Among nonfed organs, traps were a stronger sink for Gln‐C compared to Gln‐N, and roots were a stronger sink for Gln‐N compared to Gln‐C. A significant amount of the Gln‐C was respired as indicated by 13C‐CO2 emission, enhanced levels of metabolites of respiratory Gln degradation and increased abundance of proteins of respiratory processes. Transcription analyses revealed constitutive expression of enzymes involved in Gln metabolism in traps. It appears that prey not only provides building blocks of cellular constituents of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula, but also is used for energy generation by respiratory amino acid degradation.
    Keywords: Amino Acid Catabolism ; Carbon Partitioning ; Dionaea Muscipula Venus Flytrap ; Glutamine ; Nitrogen N Partitioning ; Plant Carnivory ; Respiratory Degradation
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, November 2018, Vol.242, pp.905-913
    Description: Vegetation in the Arabian Peninsula is facing high and steadily rising tropospheric ozone pollution. However, little is known about the impacts of elevated ozone on date palms, one of the most important indigenous economic species. To elucidate the physiological responses of date palm to peak levels of acute ozone exposure, seedlings were fumigated with 200 ppb ozone for 8 h. Net CO assimilation rate, stomatal conduction, total carbon, its isotope signature and total sugar contents in leaves and roots were not significantly affected by the treatment and visible symptoms of foliar damage were not induced. Ozone exposure did not affect hydrogen peroxide and thiol contents but diminished the activities of glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase, stimulated the oxidation of ascorbate, and resulted in elevated total ascorbate contents. Total nitrogen, soluble protein and lignin contents remained unchanged upon ozone exposure, but the abundance of low molecular weight nitrogen (LMWN) compounds such as amino acids and nitrate as well as other anions were strongly diminished in leaves and roots. Other nitrogen pools did not benefit from the decline of LMWN, indicating reduced uptake and/or enhanced release of these compounds into the soil as a systemic response to aboveground ozone exposure. Several phenolic compounds, concurrent with fatty acids and stearyl alcohol, accumulated in leaves, but declined in roots, whereas total phenol contents significantly increased in the roots. Together these results indicate that local and systemic changes in both, primary and secondary metabolism contribute to the high tolerance of date palms to short-term acute ozone exposure. Date palms can grow and develop in an environment with high acute atmospheric ozone levels due to its tolerance to this air pollutant mediated by adaptations of both, primary and secondary metabolisms, as well as whole plant shoot-root interactions.
    Keywords: Sugars ; Reactive Oxygen Species ; Glutathione ; Ascorbate ; Nitrate ; Nitrogen Partitioning ; Anti-Oxidative System ; Secondary Metabolites ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Photosynthesis Research, 2016, Vol.129(1), pp.43-58
    Description: Steady-state rates of leaf CO 2 assimilation ( A ) in response to incubation temperature ( T ) are often symmetrical around an optimum temperature. A / T curves of C 3 plants can thus be fitted to a modified Arrhenius equation, where the activation energy of A close to a low reference temperature is strongly correlated with the dynamic change of activation energy to increasing incubation temperature. We tested how [CO 2 ] 〈 current atmospheric levels and saturating light, or [CO 2 ] at 800 µmol mol −1 and variable light affect parameters that describe A / T curves, and how these parameters are related to known properties of temperature-dependent thylakoid electron transport. Variation of light intensity and substomatal [CO 2 ] had no influence on the symmetry of A / T curves, but significantly affected their breadth. Thermodynamic and kinetic (physiological) factors responsible for (i) the curvature in Arrhenius plots and (ii) the correlation between parameters of a modified Arrhenius equation are discussed. We argue that the shape of A / T curves cannot satisfactorily be explained via classical concepts assuming temperature-dependent shifts between rate-limiting processes. Instead the present results indicate that any given A / T curve appears to reflect a distinct flux mode, set by the balance between linear and cyclic electron transport, and emerging from the anabolic demand for ATP relative to that for NADPH.
    Keywords: Temperature response ; Non-linear Arrhenius plot ; Cyclic electron flow ; Photorespiration
    ISSN: 0166-8595
    E-ISSN: 1573-5079
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental botany, February 2014, Vol.65(2), pp.755-66
    Description: Does Dionaea muscipula, the Venus flytrap, use a particular mechanism to attract animal prey? This question was raised by Charles Darwin 140 years ago, but it remains unanswered. This study tested the hypothesis that Dionaea releases volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to allure prey insects. For this purpose, olfactory choice bioassays were performed to elucidate if Dionaea attracts Drosophila melanogaster. The VOCs emitted by the plant were further analysed by GC-MS and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The bioassays documented that Drosophila was strongly attracted by the carnivorous plant. Over 60 VOCs, including terpenes, benzenoids, and aliphatics, were emitted by Dionaea, predominantly in the light. This work further tested whether attraction of animal prey is affected by the nutritional status of the plant. For this purpose, Dionaea plants were fed with insect biomass to improve plant N status. However, although such feeding altered the VOC emission pattern by reducing terpene release, the attraction of Drosophila was not affected. From these results it is concluded that Dionaea attracts insects on the basis of food smell mimicry because the scent released has strong similarity to the bouquet of fruits and plant flowers. Such a volatile blend is emitted to attract insects searching for food to visit the deadly capture organ of the Venus flytrap.
    Keywords: Carnivorous Plants ; Dionaea Muscipula ; Drosophila Melanogaster ; VOC Emissions. ; Nitrogen Status ; Olfactory Bioassay ; Plant–Animal Interaction ; Droseraceae -- Physiology ; Drosophila Melanogaster -- Physiology ; Volatile Organic Compounds -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00220957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
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  • 7
    In: Journal Of Experimental Botany, 2015, Vol. 66(11), pp.3429-3429
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
    Source: Oxford University Press
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2017, Vol.31(2), pp.623-644
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-016-1496-0 Byline: Jorg Kruse (1), Mark A. Adams (2), Georgi Kadinov (1), Leila Arab (1), Jurgen Kreuzwieser (1), Saleh Alfarraj (3), Waltraud Schulze (4), Heinz Rennenberg (1,3) Keywords: Arrhenius equation; Acclimation; Temperature; V .sub.cmax; Rubisco activase; Respiration Abstract: Key message Instantaneous temperature responses of leaf respiration and photosynthesis can be described by the same equation, to help understand acclimation of primary metabolism to altered growth temperature and water supply. Abstract We used a three-parameter, modified Arrhenius equation, originally developed for leaf respiration, to characterize A/T curves of Date Palm and acclimation to elevated growth temperature and water deprivation: A.sub.T = A.sub.ref e.sup.[ E.sub.o/ (Ref.sub.A ) ( T - T.sub.ref/ T T.sub.ref ) + [delta].sub.A ( T - T.sub.ref/ T T.sub.ref ).sup.2 ] 〈![CDATA[ ]]〉 A T = A ref x e E o ( Ref A ) a x T - T ref T x T ref + [delta] A x T - T ref T x T ref 2 〈![CDATA[ ]]〉 where A .sub.ref is the net CO.sub.2-assimilation (A) at fixed reference temperature (T .sub.ref), E .sub.o(Ref.sub.A) is the activation energy of A close to T .sub.ref, and [delta] .sub.A describes the change of E .sub.o with increasing incubation temperature (T). Similar to respiration parameters, E .sub.o(Ref.sub.A) and [delta] .sub.A-values were strongly correlated. Symmetry of A/T curves, i.e., constancy of dE .sub.o/dT between 20--45 [degrees]C incubation temperatures, suggests close coordination of component processes underlying A. This symmetry remained at high growth temperature, despite large reductions in biochemical capacity for P .sub.i regeneration relative to carboxylation capacity (i.e., increased abundance of RubisCO activase). Acclimation to higher temperature caused pronounced reductions in physiological capacity of respiration (R .sub.Cap) (type II acclimation, determined via gas exchange measurements). Reductions in R .sub.Cap were not a result of limitations in substrate availability (i.e., pyruvate), but were related to lower abundances of mitochondrial enzymes in well-watered plants (i.e., pyruvate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase). Water shortage led to sucrose accumulation, with modest reductions in mitochondrial enzyme pools. R .sub.Cap remained low when growth temperature was increased. Author Affiliation: (1) Chair of Tree Physiology, Institute of Forest Sciences, Georges-Kohler-Allee 53/54, 79110, Freiburg, Germany (2) Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia (3) College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia (4) Department of Plant Systems Biology, University of Hohenheim, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 09/11/2016 Received Date: 03/10/2016 Accepted Date: 08/11/2016 Online Date: 09/01/2017 Article note: Communicated by U. Luettge. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00468-016-1496-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Arrhenius equation ; Acclimation ; Temperature ; V cmax ; Rubisco activase ; Respiration
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2016, Vol.179(2), pp.135-150
    Description: In future, prolonged summer drought and heat will constitute a major risk for the cultivation of shallow‐rooting beech in Central Europe and will negatively affect the productivity of beech forests. In a pot experiment under controlled conditions, the influence of long‐term (28 d) water deprivation on nitrogen (N), carbon (C), phosphate (P), and ascorbate (ASC) concentrations was examined in leaves and fine roots of beech seedlings ( L.) from six provenances originating from Central Europe (Germany: Neidenstein and Illertissen, intermediate habitats), the Balkan peninsula (Croatia: Zagreb and Gospic, wet habitats), and Southeast Europe (Bulgaria: Kotel, Greece: Paikos; dry habitats). The goal of the study was to identify beech provenances well adapted to water limitation during summer drought events. Our results suggest that N might be involved in the alleviation of water scarcity, whereas P might become a limiting factor for forest growth during drought periods. Drought stress resulted in significant changes of ASC pools in leaves and fine roots and the ASC redox state. Under well‐watered and under drought conditions, ASC in leaves was the most important factor causing differences between the provenances examined. Finally, a link between P nutrition and the capacity of antioxidative stress defense by ascorbate could be highlighted. Based on observations from this study, beech seedlings from three origins (Paikos, Zagreb, and Neidenstein) might constitute beech provenances well adapted to water shortage in summer. This conclusion is drawn from the high potential of these provenances to alleviate oxidative stress during water shortage.
    Keywords: Ascorbate ; C : P I Ratio ; Climate Change ; Fagus Sylvatica ; N : P I Ratio ; Phosphorus
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental and Experimental Botany, May 2016, Vol.125, pp.20-30
    Description: In the present study, we investigated the responses of date palm ( ) to drought and heat as single stressors and in combination. We tested the hypotheses (i) that heat and drought enhance the capacity of the antioxidative system, and (ii) that due to the high stress tolerance of date palm, the plants’ redox state will be widely unaffected, and (iii) that heat but not drought changes the plants’ fatty acid composition and biosynthesis of isoprene, both contributing to the stabilization of membrane integrity. Photosynthesis was only weakly affected by both stresses, whereas the levels of the antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione in leaves dropped. This drop was, however, over-compensated by increased activities of glutathione reductase, an important enzyme of the antioxidative system. The plants’ redox state was unaffected by stress as indicated by unchanged H O levels. Because we do not know the concentration of isoprene at its site of action, isoprene emission might provide indirect hints on its possible functions. Isoprene emission strongly increased due to heat indicating its possible role as an antioxidant and for stabilization of thylakoid membranes. Fatty acids only reacted in response to drought. We conclude that the high heat and drought tolerance of date palm is the consequence of a concerted action of the antioxidative system, mainly based on enzyme activities and the assumed antioxidative effects of isoprene as well as adjustments in the fatty acid composition.
    Keywords: Ascorbate ; Dehydroascorbate Reductase ; Fatty Acids ; Gas Exchange ; Glutathione ; Glutathione Reductase ; Isoprene ; Photosynthesis ; Thiols ; Environmental Sciences ; Botany
    ISSN: 0098-8472
    E-ISSN: 1873-7307
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