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  • Allwinn, Regina  (13)
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  • 1
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2010, Vol.37(7), pp.454-459
    Description: BACKGROUND:: The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of coinfecting viruses and Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) in a cohort of 205 antiretrovirally treated HIV-infected individuals (152 females and 53 males, aged: 19–71 years) in rural Lesotho. Furthermore agent-specific immune responses were investigated by analyzing antibody titers against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and against T. pallidum. METHODS:: Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses, and T. pallidum. RESULTS:: Seroprevalences (95% confidence intervals) were found to be 100% (98.5%–100%) for anti-cytomegalovirus, 98.5% (95.7%–99.7%) for anti-hepatitis A virus, 35.5% (28.9%–42.6%) for anti-HBc, 5.5% (2.8%–9.6%) for hepatitis B surface antigen, and 0.5% (0.0%–2.8%) for anti-hepatitis C virus. Only 78.5% (72.2%–84.0%) were anti-HSV-2 positive and 29.0% (22.8%–35.8%) had antibodies against T. pallidum. Only anti-HSV-2 titers showed gender- and CD4 cell-count dependent differences: females with 〉500 CD4 cells/μL had an average anti-HSV-2 titer of 446 compared with males of 398 AU/mL (not significant), but in those with 250 to 500 CD4 cells/μL, there was a significant difference with a mean titer of 467 compared to 302 AU/mL in males (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: A high seroprevalence of CMV, HAV, and HBV was found in both genders. One-third of the patients had been exposed to HBV and T. pallidum. The generally high HSV-2 prevalence showed gender- and CD4 cell count-dependent differences in HSV-2 antibody titer.
    Keywords: Hiv Infections -- Research ; Hiv Infections -- Demographic Aspects ; Immune Response -- Research ; Immune Response -- Demographic Aspects ; Treponema Pallidum -- Drug Therapy ; Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay -- Usage;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, April 15, 2008, Vol.8, p.121
    Description: Background Medical students come into contact with infectious diseases early on their career. Immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases is therefore vital for both medical students and the patients with whom they come into contact. Methods The purpose of this study was to compare the medical history and serological status of selected vaccine-preventable diseases of medical students in Germany. Results The overall correlation between self-reported medical history statements and serological findings among the 150 students studied was 86.7 %, 66.7 %, 78 % and 93.3 % for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella, conditional on sufficient immunity being achieved after one vaccination. Although 81.2 % of the students' medical history data correlated with serological findings, significant gaps in immunity were found. Conclusion Our findings indicate that medical history alone is not a reliable screening tool for immunity against the vaccine-preventable diseases studied.
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases -- Prevention ; Communicable Diseases -- Research ; Medical Students -- Health Aspects ; Medical Students -- Research ; Vaccination -- Health Aspects ; Vaccination -- Research
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, April 15, 2008, Vol.8, p.121
    Description: Background Medical students come into contact with infectious diseases early on their career. Immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases is therefore vital for both medical students and the patients with whom they come into contact. Methods The purpose of this study was to compare the medical history and serological status of selected vaccine-preventable diseases of medical students in Germany. Results The overall correlation between self-reported medical history statements and serological findings among the 150 students studied was 86.7 %, 66.7 %, 78 % and 93.3 % for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella, conditional on sufficient immunity being achieved after one vaccination. Although 81.2 % of the students' medical history data correlated with serological findings, significant gaps in immunity were found. Conclusion Our findings indicate that medical history alone is not a reliable screening tool for immunity against the vaccine-preventable diseases studied.
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases -- Prevention ; Communicable Diseases -- Research ; Medical Students -- Health Aspects ; Medical Students -- Research ; Vaccination -- Health Aspects ; Vaccination -- Research
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, 01 April 2008, Vol.8(1), p.121
    Description: Abstract Background Medical students come into contact with infectious diseases early on their career. Immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases is therefore vital for both medical students and the patients with whom they come into contact....
    Keywords: Public Health
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
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  • 5
    In: Neuro-Oncology, 2014, Vol. 16(11), pp.1469-1477
    Description: BACKGROUND: Experimental findings have suggested that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of tumor cells may exert oncomodulatory effects that enhance tumor malignancy. However, controversial findings have been published on the presence of HCMV in malignant tumors. Here, we present the first study that systematically investigates HCMV infection in human nervous system tumors by highly sensitive immunohistochemistry in correlation with the HCMV serostatus of the patients.METHODS: Immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR-based methods to detect different HCMV antigens and genomic HCMV DNA were optimized prior to the investigation of pathological samples. Moreover, the pathological results were matched with the HCMV serostatus of the patients.RESULTS: HCMV immediate-early, late, and pp65 antigens could be detected in single cells from HCMV strain Hi91-infected UKF-NB-4 neuroblastoma cells after 1:1024 dilution with noninfected UKF-NB-4 cells. Genomic HCMV DNA could be detected in copy numbers as low as 430 copies/mL. However, we did not detect HCMV in tumors from a cohort of 123 glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, or neuroblastoma patients. Notably, we detected nonspecifically positive staining in tumor tissues of HCMV seropositive and seronegative glioblastoma patients. The HCMV serostatus of 67 glioblastoma patients matched the general epidemiological prevalence data for Western countries (72% of female and 57% of male glioblastoma patients were HCMV seropositive). Median survival was not significantly different in HCMV seropositive versus seronegative glioblastoma patients.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCMV-infected tumor cells may be much lower than previously reported based on highly sensitive detection methods.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus ; Glioma ; Oncomodulation
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
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  • 6
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin, 2009, Vol.33(4), pp.223-227
    Description: Medizinstudenten sind im Rahmen ihrer klinischen Ausbildung einer erhöhten Infektionsgefährdung ausgesetzt. Dessen ungeachtet sind die Impfraten der Medizinstudenten ungenügend. Ein adäquater Impfstatus der Medizinstudenten vor Beginn ihres klinischen Ausbildungsabschnitts ist jedoch wichtig, um nosokomiale Infektionen zu vermeiden.
    Description: Im April und Mai 2007 wurden insgesamt 366 Serumproben von Medizinstudenten des ersten klinischen Semesters ausgewertet. Die serologischen Untersuchungen erfolgten mittels etablierter ELISA-Systeme. Untersucht wurde auf spezifische Antikörper gegen Masern, Mumps, Röteln, Varizellen, Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) und HIV.
    Description: Insgesamt 63,9% (n=234) der Studenten waren gegen Hepatitis B geimpft (Grundimmunisierung, drei Impfdosen). Dagegen hatten 31,7% (n=116) der Studenten bisher noch keine Hepatitis B-Impfung und 4,4% (n=16) kein komplettes Impfschema erhalten (〈drei Impfungen). Zwei Studenten zeigten serologische Marker einer abgelaufenen HBV-Infektion. Es wurde die Erstdiagnose einer HCV-Infektion sowie die Erstdiagnose einer HIV-Infektion gestellt. Bei 7,9% (Masern), 17,5% (Mumps), 6,5% (Röteln) und 2,2% (Varizellen) der Studenten konnten keine virusspezifischen Antikörper nachgewiesen werden.
    Description: Es sollten weitere Anstrengungen unternommen werden, um die Impfraten der Medizinstudenten zu verbessern. Es ist wichtig, Immunitätslücken zu identifizieren und vor dem ersten Patientenkontakt zu schließen. Im Hinblick auf die Erstdiagnose und die Folgen schwerwiegender blutübertragbarer Erkrankungen (z.B. HBV, HCV und HIV) sollten Medizinstudenten auf diese Infektionen untersucht werden.
    Description: Medical students are exposed to infectious diseases during the course of their clinical training. Unfortunately, vaccination rates among medical students remain insufficient. However, immunizations against vaccine-preventable diseases should be carried out before the students enter clinical courses. This is vital in order to prevent nosocomial infections. We screened 366 medical students in their first clinical year for hospital-related viral diseases. Serum samples were collected between April and May 2007. Antibody testing was carried out using commercial ELISA systems against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, 63.9% (n=234) of the students were sufficiently vaccinated against HBV. In contrast, 31.7% (n=116) had not received any HBV vaccine dosage, and 4.4% (n=16) had not completed the full vaccine cycle (〈3 dosage). Remarkably, two students showed serological markers of resolved HBV infection. In addition, one student was HCV-positive and one was HIV-positive, respectively. The following seronegative rates were found: measles (7.9%), mumps (17.5%), rubella (6.5%), and varicella (2.2%). Further work is needed to identify optimal strategies for improving vaccination rates among medical students. It is imperative to identify and limit possible disparities in immunity of vaccine-preventable diseases before initial patient contact. With regard to the primary diagnosis of serious virus diseases including HBV, HCV and HIV, medical students should be screened for these blood borne pathogens.
    Keywords: Blutübertragbare Infektionskrankheiten ; Impfraten ; Medizinstudenten ; Blood Borne Infection ; Medical Students ; Vaccine Uptake Rates
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin / Journal of Laboratory Medicine, July 1, 2009, Vol.33(4), p.-(1)
    Description: Byline: Sabine Wicker; Holger F. Rabenau; Hans W. Doerr; Regina Allwinn Keywords: blood borne infection, medical students, vaccine uptake rates Author Notes: Correspondence: Dr. Sabine Wicker, Betriebsarztlicher Dienst, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany Tel.: +49-69-63014511 Fax: +49-69-63016385 Email: Sabine.Wicker@kgu.de
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(3), pp.151-155
    Description: Measles virus infection as well as measles vaccination induces a long-lasting immune protection. Specific antibodies have been proven to be associated with this immune protection, since measles immunity can be transferred by immune globulin application (passive immunisation). The neutralisation test (NT) is regarded as the gold standard method for measles immunity because it measures functional neutralising antibody, while with the ELISA, which is often based on cell culture grown native virus antigens, predominantly antibodies to the nucleoprotein antigen were detected. To compare the results of NT and ELISA 199 individual sera and 364 gamma globulin samples, which were made from plasma pools, were tested. Qualitative results showed that the sensitivity of the ELISA was 141/144 (97.9%) and specificity was 48/55 (87.3%) when compared to the NT and focused to the patient samples. For the gamma globulin samples the sensitivity and specificity was 100%. As expected no measles NT negative plasma pool samples were found. The present study showed that with increasing NT-titre, the ELISA-values also rise. False negative ELISA results were obtained in 1.5% of patient sera, mainly containing low levels of neutralising antibody. In both antibody tests seropositive specimens revealed a quite good to moderate correlation. Taken together, the measles IgG ELISA is adequately for immunity testing and identifying of seronegative individuals for vaccination.
    Keywords: Measles virus ; Immunity ; Neutralisation test ; ELISA antibody titres ; Gamma globulin preparations
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(3), pp.145-150
    Description: In the course of clinical training medical students are in particular exposed to infectious diseases. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the immunity status of 223 medical students in their first clinical semester to job-related diseases. Specific serological antibody testing of hepatitis B-virus (HBV), hepatitis C-virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), varicella zoster- (VZV), measles-, mumps-, rubella and polioviruses’ type 1, 2 and 3 were performed. The results yielded, that 69.5% of the students had an anti-HBs-level ≥10 IU/l and 54.7% ≥100 IU/l. Neither HCV infection nor HIV infection were found, but one student showed an active HBV infection. Virus specific immunity rates were found in 91.5% for measles, 80.3% for mumps, 90.1% for rubella and 96.9% for varicella. Furthermore the medical students demonstrated neutralizing antibodies to polioviruses: 95.1% (type 1), 96.9% (type 2) and 70% (type 3). 68.2% had antibodies (titer 1:≥10) against all three virus types. The partly significant gaps of immunity in the students need to be closed prior to the first contact with patients.
    Keywords: Virus serology ; Vaccination ; Medical students ; Immune status
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2008, Vol.81(3), pp.347-354
    Description: Byline: Sabine Wicker (1), Juliane Jung (2), Regina Allwinn (2), Rene Gottschalk (3), Holger F. Rabenau (2) Keywords: Bloodborne viruses; Health care workers; Needlestick injury; Occupational infections; Safety devices Abstract: Objective Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to bloodborne pathogens, especially hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through job-related risk factors like needlestick, stab, scratch, cut, or other bloody injuries. Needlestick injuries can be prevented by safer devices. Methods The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and causes of needlestick injuries in a German university hospital. Data were obtained by an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. We calculated the share of reported needlestick injuries, which could have been prevented by using safety devices. Results 31.4% (n = 226) of participant HCWs had sustained at least one needlestick injury in the last 12 months. A wide variation in the number of reported needlestick injuries was evident across disciplines, ranging from 46.9% (n = 91/194) among medical staff in surgery and 18.7% (n = 53/283) among HCWs in pediatrics. Of all occupational groups, physicians have the highest risk to experience needlestick injuries (55.1%--n = 129/234). Evaluating the kind of activity under which the needlestick injury occurred, on average 34% (n = 191/561) of all needlestick injuries could have been avoided by the use of safety devices. Taking all medical disciplines and procedures into consideration, safety devices are available for 35.1% (n = 197/561) of needlestick injuries sustained. However, there was a significant difference across various medical disciplines in the share of needlestick injuries which might have been avoidable: Pediatrics (83.7%), gynecology (83.7%), anesthesia (59.3%), dermatology (33.3%), and surgery (11.9%). In our study, only 13.2% (n = 74/561) of needlestick injuries could have been prevented by organizational measures. Conclusion There is a high rate of needlestick injuries in the daily routine of a hospital. The rate of such injuries depends on the medical discipline. Implementation of safety devices will lead to an improvement in medical staff's health and safety. Author Affiliation: (1) Occupational Health Service, Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt, Germany (2) Institute of Medical Virology, Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 40, 60596, Frankfurt, Germany (3) City Health Office of Frankfurt/Main, Braubachstr. 18-22, 60311, Frankfurt, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 13/06/2007 Received Date: 22/01/2007 Accepted Date: 13/06/2007 Online Date: 10/07/2007
    Keywords: Bloodborne viruses ; Health care workers ; Needlestick injury ; Occupational infections ; Safety devices
    ISSN: 0340-0131
    E-ISSN: 1432-1246
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