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  • Batteiger, B.E.  (11)
  • Chlamydia Trachomatis
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 January 2010, Vol.201(1), pp.42-51
    Description: Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis infections are common among young sexually active women. The relative frequency of reinfection and antibiotic treatment failure is undefined. Adolescent women enrolled in a longitudinal cohort had behavioral and sexually transmitted infection assessments performed every 3 months, including amplification tests for C. trachomatis, ompA genotyping, and interviews and diary entries to document sex partner-specific coitus and event-specific condom use. Repeated infections were classified as reinfection or treatment failure by use of an algorithm. All infections for which treatment outcomes were known were used to estimate the effectiveness of antibiotic use. We observed 478 episodes of infection among 210 study participants; 176 women remained uninfected. The incidence rate was 34 episodes/100 woman-years. Of the women who were infected, 121 experienced 1 repeated infections, forming 268 episode pairs; 183 pairs had complete data available and were classified using the algorithm. Of the repeated infections, 84.2% were definite, probable, or possible reinfections; 13.7% were probable or possible treatment failures; and 2.2% persisted without documented treatment. For 318 evaluable infections, we estimated 92.2% effectiveness of antibiotic use. Most repeated chlamydial infections in this high-incidence cohort were reinfections, but repeated infections resulting from treatment failures occurred as well. Our results have implications for male screening and partner notification programs and suggest the need for improved antibiotic therapies.
    Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Azithromycin -- Therapeutic Use ; Chlamydia Infections -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 2
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2016, Vol.43(12), pp.741-749
    Description: BACKGROUND: Sexual transmission rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) cannot be measured directly; however, the study of concordance of Ct infection in sexual partnerships (dyads) can help to illuminate factors influencing Ct transmission. METHODS: Heterosexual men and women with Ct infection and their sex partners were enrolled and partner-specific coital and behavioral data collected for the prior 30 days. Microbiological data included Ct culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction, and ompA genotyping. We measured Ct concordance in dyads and factors (correlates) associated with concordance. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-one women and 125 men formed 128 dyads. Overall, 72.9% of male partners of NAAT-positive women and 68.6% of female partners of NAAT-positive men were Ct-infected. Concordance was more common in dyads with culture-positive members (78.6% of male partners, 77% of female partners). Partners of women and men who were NAAT-positive only had lower concordance (33.3%, 46.4%, respectively). Women in concordant dyads had significantly higher median endocervical quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction values (3,032) compared with CT-infected women in discordant dyads (1013 inclusion forming units DNA equivalents per mL; P 〈 0.01). Among 54 Ct-concordant dyads with ompA genotype data for both members, 96.2% had identical genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Higher organism load appears associated with concordance among women. Same-genotype chlamydial concordance was high in sexual partnerships. No behavioral factors were sufficiently discriminating to guide partner services activities. Findings may help model coitus-specific transmission probabilities.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Infections -- Genetic Aspects ; Chlamydia Infections -- Development And Progression ; Virulence (Microbiology) -- Genetic Aspects ; Genotypes -- Health Aspects ; Disease Susceptibility -- Genetic Aspects;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 April 1989, Vol.159(4), pp.661-669
    Description: To determine whether concurrent gonorrhea reactivates latent chlamydial infection, we studied 74 recurrent chlamydial infections and the effect of concurrent gonorrhea at the recurrent episode on the chlamydial serovar identified. Serotyping of 74 recurrent pairs of chlamydial isolates from patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic indicated that 47.1% (16 of 34) with gonorrhea at the time of recurrence harbored chlamydiae of the same serovar as at the initial infection, while only 22.5% (9 of 40) without gonorrhea had the same serovar (P = .03). The proportion of recurrences by the same serovar in the group without gonorrhea did not differ from the proportion predicted by a random exposure model (22.2% vs. 18.4%, P = .46), while the proportion in the gonorrhea group did (47.1% vs. 19.8% P 〈 .0001). The possibility of reinfection did not appear more likely in the group with gonorrhea than in the group without. These observations support the hypothesis that concurrent gonorrhea can reactivate latent chlamydial infection.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections ; Social sciences -- Population studies -- Human populations ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, 1992, Vol.121(3), pp.487-493
    Description: To determine the recurrence rate of chlamydial infections, we initially screened an urban population of 1308 sexually active female adolescents for chlamydial infection at the urethral and endocervical sites; these young women were followed and had additional examinations for infection. Chlamydial infection was documented by tissue culture in 31.1% (407) of them at some time during the study. After appropriate antibiotic treatment, 68.3% (278/407) returned for test-of-cure cultures within 3 months of their initial infection; of those 278, a total of 254 had sterile cultures. These patients were followed to determine the recurrence rate of chlamydial infections. Of these 254 patients, 177 (69.7%) had one or more follow-up visits; 38.4% (68/177) had a recurrent chlamydial infection. The majority of recurrent infections were documented within 9 months of the initial infection. Recurrent infections with the same serovar were frequent, suggesting reinfection by untreated partners or possible relapse of the initial chlamydial infection. This high rate of recurrent infection suggests that female adolescents should be rescreened frequently for genitourinary chlamydial infections.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 August 1989, Vol.160(2), pp.332-336
    Description: The relationship between acute inflammation and serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was evaluated in patients with genital chlamydial infection who attended a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLS) were enumerated on Gram's stained smears of endourethral contents in men; cervicitis was scored by visual observation of the endocervix in women. Isolates were serotyped with a monoclonal antibody-based radioimmunoassay. The distribution of serovars in 99 women did not differ in the presence or absence of cervicitis or concurrent gonorrhea. An overall difference (P = .037) was observed when serovar distributions in men with lt;3 PMNLs (n = 42), gt;10 PMNLs (n = 41), and gonococcal urethritis (n = 42) were compared. Follow-up pairwise comparisons revealed that men with lt;3 PMNLs had fewer isolates of serovars F and G than did men with gt;10 PMNLs (P 〈.05). No strong overall association was observed between inflammation and serovar.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases -- Monoclonal antibodies ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy -- Monoclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- Monoclonal antibodies ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Monoclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Monoclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Monoclonal antibodies ; Social sciences -- Population studies -- Human populations -- Monoclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- Monoclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases -- Monoclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Monoclonal antibodies
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 6
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1991, Vol.18(1), pp.36-40
    Description: In developed nations, the most common sexually transmitted disease is infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. In the United States, the standard therapy for chlamydia infections involves a seven-day treatment period with tetracycline, erythromycin, or doxycycline. However, some cases require a longer treatment period, up to 21 days, to eliminate the infection. After the treatment period has ended, the patient is retested to make sure that the infection has been cured. This procedure is called a test-of-cure (TOC). But recurrent infections with the same strain of Chlamydia trachomatis, following seven days of treatment and TOC, are not uncommon, and may indicate that the standard therapy time should be increased. In an attempt to evaluate the relationship between the duration of treatment and the rate of recurrence of infection, the medical records of 2,983 patients, who were treated with the standard therapy for chlamydia infection, were reviewed. During a two-year follow-up period, the rate of recurrence of infection was 29 percent. Recurrence of infection was associated with young age, but not with gender or race. To determine if a longer treatment period could reduce the rate of recurrence of infection, 220 patients with chlamydia were treated with tetracycline for either 7 or 21 days. Among patients who returned, the recurrence rate was 14 percent for the seven-day treatment and 18 percent for the 21-day treatment. The difference in the recurrence rate between the two treatment groups was not statistically significant. It is concluded that a 21-day treatment period is no more effective than a seven-day treatment period in preventing recurrence of chlamydia infection. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
    Keywords: Tetracyclines -- Evaluation ; Chlamydia Infections -- Drug Therapy ; Chlamydia Trachomatis;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 7
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1987, Vol.14(3), pp.160-164
    Description: In developed nations, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted pathogen. To determine whether prior disease affects the probability of subsequent chlamydial infection, we took culture specimens from 2,546 men and 1,998 women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. The men had nongonococcal urethritis and the women were contacts of men who had a positive chlamydial culture or nongonococcal urethritis. Significantly lower isolation rates for those with a history of sexually transmitted diseases were found for both men (29% vs. 38%; P less than 0.0001) and women (27% vs. 36%; P less than 0.0001). In addition, both men and women with previously documented chlamydial infections had a lower isolation rate at the index visit, if the previous infection occurred less than, as opposed to more than, six months earlier (men: 20% vs. 41%; P = 0.0006; women: 14% vs. 35%; P = 0.003). These relationships were found to be independent of age. However, the effect of partial immunity due to prior infection could not be distinguished from that of prior antibiotic therapy, and if such immunity does confer protection against reinfection, that protection appears to be both partial and of relatively short duration.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Infections -- Diagnosis ; Chlamydia Trachomatis -- Isolation & Purification ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases -- Immunology;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Adolescent Health, 2007, Vol.40(5), pp.412-417
    Description: is a possible sexually transmitted pathogen and its study among the adolescent age group has been limited. In this longitudinal study, the epidemiology, natural history, and associated clinical findings of among adolescents in a primary care setting were explored. A sample of 383 young women (14–17 years of age) and 117 male partners provided sexual behavior data and urogenital samples for polymerase chain reaction testing to detect , , and other sexually transmitted infections. Women were tested quarterly for up to 27 months and, during every other quarter, tested weekly. The presence of any signs or symptoms of infection among the female subjects was also documented. Cumulatively, 13.6% (52/383) of women tested positive for . All women with , except one, were sexually experienced. was associated with number of sexual partners ( 〈 .001) and infection ( 〈 .03). was more likely among male partners of -positive women ( 〈 .02); 31.3% of untreated cases had infection lasting over 8 weeks. was not associated with the presence of clinical signs or symptoms of infection. Findings support sexual transmissibility of and add to understanding of natural history and clinical findings.
    Keywords: Mycoplasma Genitalium ; Chlamydia Trachomatis ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases ; Epidemiology ; Adolescent ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 1054-139X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1972
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Sexually Transmitted Infections, 12 September 2019
    Description: (CT) and (MG) cause the majority of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). The role of (UU) in NGU is unclear. Prior case–control studies that examined the association of UU and NGU may have been confounded by mixed infections and less stringent criteria for controls. The objective of this case–control study was to determine the prevalence and aetiology of mixed infections in men and assess if UU monoinfection is associated with NGU.
    Keywords: Urethritis ; Chlamydia Trachomatis ; Chlamydia Infection ; Mycoplasma ; Epidemiology (General)
    ISSN: 1368-4973
    ISSN: 13684973
    E-ISSN: 1472-3263
    E-ISSN: 14723263
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  • 10
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1994, Vol.21(1), pp.47-52
    Description: Background and Objecfives: The prevalence of chlamydial infection decreases with age possibly in part because of increasing immunity.Goal of this Sfudy:To determine whether increased age is an independent predictor of decreased chlamydial infection and whether chlamydia-specific antibody titer and blastogenesis increase with age.Sfudy Design: Data from all patients cultured for Chlamydia frachomafis between January 1984 and August 1989 were examined and multiple logistic regression models were used to identify the independent predictors of culture positivity. Antichlamydial antibody titer and chlamydia-specific blastogenesis were examined for a subset of patients for correlation with age.Results: Young age was found to be predictive of chlamydial infection independent of all factors examined in men and women. Antibody titers had no relation to age (n = 245) whereas the level of blastogenesis correlated only weakly with age (n = 155).Conclusions: Assays of systemic immunity do not reflect the protection from chlamydial infection associated with age.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Infections -- Demographic Aspects ; Chlamydia Trachomatis -- Physiological Aspects;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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