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  • Bauer, M.
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Virology, 1988, Vol.167(1), pp.166-175
    Description: The circular single-stranded viral DNA (ssDNA) of filamentous phage is oriented in the virus with a hairpin forming sequence called mos at the leading end of the virion-the end that emerges from the cell first. In the experiments that originally defined mos it was also found to enhance virion production 100-fold, though in other circumstances it has no such effect. Using a new electron-microscopic method, we have ascertained the orientation of ssDNA in phage having mutations involving mos and other viral functions, and also in the intracellular precursor to the virion-a rod-shaped complex between the ssDNA and the phage-encoded gene-V protein, pV. The results show (1) that the ssDNA is oriented in the complex as in the virion, with mos at one end; (2) that orientation is maintained even if assembly is not mediated by the complex; (3) that orientation is manifested in polyphage--abnormal particles in which many unit-length ssDNA molecules are sheathed in a single, extremely long capsid; (4) that orientation is imposed by mos itself (or something very nearby) since it disappears in a mos deletion; and (5) that a 229-base segment including the minus strand of mos is also effective at imposing orientation. On the basis of our findings, we speculate that mos determines orientation in two stages, one imposing an axis on the ssDNA loop during formation of the pV/ssDNA complex, the other imposing a direction on the loop during initiation of particle assembly. The sequence requirements for the two stages may be different.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0042-6822
    E-ISSN: 1096-0341
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 March 2010, Vol.107(12), pp.5329-5333
    Description: The most general investigation and exploitation of light-induced processes require simultaneous control over spatial and temporal properties of the electromagnetic field on a femtosecond time and nanometer length scale. Based on the combination of polarization pulse shaping and time-resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy, we demonstrate such control over nanoscale spatial and ultrafast temporal degrees of freedom of an electromagnetic excitation in the vicinity of a nanostructure. The time-resolved cross-correlation measurement of the local photo-emission yield reveals the switching of the nanolocalized optical near-field distribution with a lateral resolution well below the diffraction limit and a temporal resolution on the femtosecond time scale. In addition, successful adaptive spatiotemporal control demonstrates the flexibility of the method. This flexible simultaneous control of temporal and spatial properties of nanophotonic excitations opens new possibilities to tailor and optimize the light-matter interaction in spectroscopic methods as well as in nanophotonic applications.
    Keywords: Applied sciences -- Engineering -- Mechanical engineering ; Applied sciences -- Materials science -- Materials ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Microphysics ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Microphysics ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Fundamental forces ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Fundamental forces ; Applied sciences -- Engineering -- Optical engineering ; Environmental studies -- Environmental quality -- Environmental degradation ; Applied sciences -- Electronics -- Electronics engineering ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Mechanics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, The, Vol. 36, No. 2, Dec 2018 - Feb 2019: 14-22
    Description: Objective: Nurses working in aged care facilities need to be adequately prepared to manage the increasingly complex care needs of older people. This paper reports on the views of nurses on the barriers and enablers to conducting nursing assessments with older people in residential aged care, six weeks after attending a four day education and training workshop on this topic. Design: Descriptive evaluation. Setting: Data were collected in a range of venues in which the education was delivered. Subjects: Registered (RNs) and enrolled (ENs) nurses (n= 345) working in residential aged care facilities in Victoria, Australia. Findings: Fourteen barriers and eight enablers, which affect the capacity of nurses to conduct assessments with older people, were identified. The most common cited barriers included lack of time (78%), residents' poor state of health (41%) and the absence of equipment (33%). Common enablers were organisational support (38%); staff education and training (29%); having the appropriate equipment (22%); positive staff attitudes (17%) and the resident's condition and cooperation (16%). Conclusion: Nursing assessments are vital to the delivery of quality and evidence based aged care. The issues identified provide aged care services and managers with a basis for ensuring that nurses have the necessary preparation, training and ongoing support to perform the appropriate and required assessments to provide the best possible care.
    Keywords: Nursing Homes--Evaluation ; Nursing Assessment ; Nursing Home Care--Quality Control ; Older People--Care
    ISSN: 0813-0531
    E-ISSN: 14474328
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  • 4
    In: International Psychogeriatrics, 2015, Vol.27(3), pp.471-479
    Description: ABSTRACT Background: Music can be therapeutic to people with dementia; however, little is known about its effect on the family carers. This project aimed to (1) assess the effects of MP3 player use by a person with dementia on caregivers’ mental health and wellbeing, including their self-care and health-promoting behavior and (2) determine whether MP3 player use increases caregivers’ self-reported capacity to cope with their role. Methods: A pre–post quantitative and qualitative design was used. Carers completed a survey prior to commencing and four weeks after using the player. The survey included validated measures to assess the level of stress and coping among carers. Carers also kept a diary of the way they used the MP3 player. Half of the carers were interviewed about their experiences at the end of the study. Results: Of 59 people who started using the MP3 player, 51 carers completed the four-week study period and surveys. Use of the MP3 player significantly decreased psychological distress, significantly improved the mental health and wellbeing of carers, significantly increased caregiver self-efficacy to manage symptoms of dementia, and was reported to provide valued respite from the high level of vigilance required for caring for a person with dementia. Conclusion: An MP3 player loaded with music can be a low cost and relatively simple and effective additional strategy to support families caring for people with dementia in the community.
    Keywords: Technology; Music; Dementia; Family Caregiver; Burden
    ISSN: 1041-6102
    E-ISSN: 1741-203X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Affective Disorders, 2005, Vol.89(1), pp.217-225
    Description: We assessed reproductive endocrine and metabolic markers in women treated for bipolar disorder over a 2-year time period, controlling for valproate use. Twenty-five women ages 18–45 with bipolar disorder underwent longitudinal evaluations. Subjects completed a reproductive health questionnaire and endocrinological exam at baseline. Total and free testosterone, progesterone, LH, FSH, fasting insulin and glucose, and other hormones were measured across the menstrual cycle at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Ten subjects were currently receiving valproate as a mood stabilizing agent; of the remaining subjects, six received lithium and five received atypical antipsychotics. Of all subjects, 41.7% reported current oligomenorrhea, while 40% reported oligomenorrhea before starting medication. Rates of oligomenorrhea and clinical hyperandrogenism did not differ by medication use. Eighty percent of women had a high homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at baseline; all other measures were normal. Over time, all subjects exhibited a significant decrease in luteal phase progesterone and increase in free testosterone concentrations. Valproate use was associated with an increase over time in total testosterone. Baseline values and changes in BMI were similar across groups. Limitations include small sample size and the absence of a control group. We confirm our previous observations of high rates of menstrual abnormalities, hyperandrogenemia and insulin resistance in women with bipolar disorder. These results tentatively support the role of valproate in hyperandrogenemia; however, rates of oligomenorrhea and clinical hyperandrogenism did not differ between medication groups.
    Keywords: Bipolar Disorder ; Women ; Menstrual Abnormalities ; Testosterone ; Insulin Resistance ; Valproate
    ISSN: 0165-0327
    E-ISSN: 1573-2517
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement, 2015, Vol.120, pp.55-61
    Description: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a leading cause of death and disability and is often complicated by cerebral vasospasm (CV). Conventional management to prevent CV includes bedrest; however, inactivity places the patient at risk for nonneurological complications. We investigated the effect of mild exercise after SAH in clinical and laboratory settings. Clinical: Data from 80 patients with SAH were analyzed retrospectively. After aneurysms were secured, physical therapy was initiated as tolerated. CV and complications were compared by the timing of active physical therapy. Laboratory: 18 Rodents were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) SAH without exercise, and (3) SAH plus mild exercise. On day 5, brainstems were removed and analyzed for the injury marker inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Clinical: Mild exercise before day 4 significantly lowered the incidence of symptomatic CV compared with the nonexercised group. There was no difference in the incidence of additional complications based upon exercise. Laboratory: Staining for iNOS was significantly higher in the SAH group than the control group, but there was no difference between exercised and nonexercised SAH groups, confirming that exercise did not promote neuronal injury. Early mobilization significantly reduced clinical CV. The relationship should be studied further in a prospective trial with defined exercise regimens.
    Keywords: Exercise -- Physiology ; Physical Conditioning, Animal -- Physiology ; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage -- Complications ; Vasospasm, Intracranial -- Etiology
    ISSN: 0065-1419
    E-ISSN: 21978395
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 7
    In: American Mineralogist, 2009, Vol.94(2), pp.359-366
    Description: Garnet solid solutions have been synthesized across the skiagite-Fe-knorringite (Fe 3 2+ Fe 2 3+ Si 3 O 12 - Fe 3 Cr 2 Si 3 O 12 ) binary join. Such compositions reflect a simple Cr-Fe 3+ exchange on the octahedral sites, with Fe 2+ occupying the adjacent dodecahedral sites. Solid solution is complete across the join and the correct stoichiometry was verified by Mössbauer spectroscopy. A symmetric fit to the molar volume data yields 119.77(2) cm 3 /mol [unit-cell parameter ao =11.6736(7) Å] for the Fe-knorringite end-member and a small negative excess volume, W v = -0.76(15) cm 3 /mol. Combining this result with literature data reveals that binary joins involving octahedral site substitutions exhibit significantly different behavior than those where substitution occurs on the dodecahedral sites. In the former case, WV is usually negative, whereas the latter joins have positive deviations from ideal behavior. Therefore, we conclude that the garnet structure responds in a fundamentally different way when accommodating different cations on the dodecahedral or octahedral sites. Mössbauer spectra of skiagite-Fe-knorringite garnets do not exhibit any significant asymmetry in the [8] Fe 2+ doublet. Fe 3+ /ΣFe values determined at room temperature and 80 K confirm the general applicability of the recoil-free fraction correction factors reported by Woodland and Ross (1994) for mixed-valence garnets. Coexisting spinels in some samples are either binary Fe 3 O 4 -Fe 2 SiO 4 or Fe 3 O 4 -FeCr 2 O 4 solid solutions. Very little mutual solubility is apparent suggesting a significant solvus may exist between the silicate and Cr-bearing spinel series.
    Keywords: Fe-Knorringite ; Fe-Cr Garnet ; Skiagite ; Molar Volume ; Mössbauer Spectroscopy ; Excess Thermodynamic Properties ; Fe-Cr Spinel
    ISSN: 0003-004X
    E-ISSN: 1945-3027
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 1998, Vol.18(4), pp.235-243
    Description: : Increased regulation of professional practice imposes obligations upon practitioners to keep abreast of professional developments. One mandate of a professional association is to offer opportunities for professional growth in clinical practice, education, and research to its members. But are there others who should be involved? Rapid societal change has dictated new constraints in the practices of health care practitioners, some legislated and others imposed by institutional and economic considerations. At the same time, research and advances in technology challenge health care practitioners to expand their knowledge and change their practices in ways that go well beyond mere technical competence. A philosophical analysis of professionalism places the responsibility for continuing education with the professional practitioners, individually and in collaboration with their colleagues. The purpose of such collaboration is to further professional goals and to ensure that professional competence is maintained. Different organizations typically represent these interests on behalf of their members. Professional ideals extend beyond the local workplace and clinical competence to researching new initiatives that may more accurately reflect the complex needs of individual clients. Professional constraints insist on standards of practice that are evidence based and effective for the majority of clients with similar needs. A systems approach to these issues suggests a framework that delineates organizational responsibilities and relationships; it recognizes the different roles and expertise of each of the players and acts as a catalyst for ongoing discussion and collaboration in the marketplace of continuing professional education.
    Keywords: Professional Competence ; Professional Development ; Professionalism;
    ISSN: 0894-1912
    E-ISSN: 1554558X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Science Advances, 2019, Vol. 5(3)
    Description: Quantum materials represent one of the most promising frontiers in the quest for faster, lightweight, energy-efficient technologies. However, their inherent complexity and rich phase landscape make them challenging to understand or manipulate. Here, we present a new ultrafast electron calorimetry technique that can systematically uncover new phases of quantum matter. Using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we measure the dynamic electron temperature, band structure, and heat capacity. This approach allows us to uncover a new long-lived metastable state in the charge density wave material 1T-TaSe2, which is distinct from all the known equilibrium phases: It is characterized by a substantially reduced effective total heat capacity that is only 30% of the normal value, because of selective electron-phonon coupling to a subset of phonon modes. As a result, less energy is required to melt the charge order and transform the state of the material than under thermal equilibrium conditions.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Condensed Matter Physics ; Naturvetenskap ; Fysik ; Den Kondenserade Materiens Fysik
    ISSN: 23752548
    E-ISSN: 23752548
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Thompson, P. M., J. L. Stein, S. E. Medland, D. P. Hibar, A. A. Vasquez, M. E. Renteria, R. Toro, et al. 2014. “The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 8 (1): 153-182. doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9269-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-013-9269-5.
    Description: The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA’s first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
    Keywords: Genetics ; Mri ; Gwas ; Consortium ; Meta-Analysis ; Multi-Site
    ISBN: 1168201392695
    ISSN: 1931-7557
    E-ISSN: 19317565
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