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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Dec 1, 2015, Vol.535, p.1(2)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.006 Byline: Gabriele E. Schaumann, Thomas Baumann, Friederike Lang, George Metreveli, Hans-Jorg Vogel
    Keywords: Soils
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 December 2015, Vol.535, pp.3-19
    Description: Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) from consumers' products and industrial applications, especially silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NP), are emitted into the aquatic and terrestrial environments in increasing amounts. However, the current knowledge on their environmental fate and biological effects is diverse and renders reliable predictions complicated. This review critically evaluates existing knowledge on colloidal aging mechanisms, biological functioning and transport of Ag NP and TiO NP in water and soil and it discusses challenges for concepts, experimental approaches and analytical methods in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the processes linking NP fate and effects. Ag NP undergo dissolution and oxidation with Ag S as a thermodynamically determined endpoint. Nonetheless, Ag NP also undergo colloidal transformations in the nanoparticulate state and may act as carriers for other substances. Ag NP and TiO NP can have adverse biological effects on organisms. Whereas Ag NP reveal higher colloidal stability and mobility, the efficiency of NOM as a stabilizing agent is greater towards TiO NP than towards Ag NP, and multivalent cations can dominate the colloidal behavior over NOM. Many of the past analytical obstacles have been overcome just recently. Single particle ICP-MS based methods in combination with field flow fractionation techniques and hydrodynamic chromatography have the potential to fill the gaps currently hampering a comprehensive understanding of fate and effects also at a low field relevant concentrations. These analytical developments will allow for mechanistically orientated research and transfer to a larger set of EINP. This includes separating processes driven by NP specific properties and bulk chemical properties, categorization of effect-triggering pathways directing the EINP effects towards specific recipients, and identification of dominant environmental parameters triggering fate and effect of EINP in specific ecosystems (e.g. soil, lake, or riverine systems).
    Keywords: Transport ; Aggregation ; Analytics ; Environment ; Aging ; Ecotoxicology ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 December 2015, Vol.535, pp.1-2
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2012, Vol.403(9), pp.2529-2540
    Description: Biogeochemical interfaces in soil are dynamic in the spatial and temporal domain and require advanced visualisation and quantification tools to link in vitro experiments with natural systems. This study presents the development, characterization and application of functional nanoparticles coated with monoclonal antibodies to visualise the distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in porous media using magnetic resonance imaging. The labelled particles are 450 nm in diameter and interact with benzo[a]pyrene covalently bound to silanized silica gel. They did not bind to benzo[a]pyrene adsorbed to plain silica gel. Although unspecific filtration was low, washing steps are required for visualisation. The ability to visualise benzo[a]pyrene is inversely correlated to the heterogeneity of the soil materials. There are access restrictions to narrow pore spaces which allow the visualisation of only those pathways which are also accessible to bacteria and hydrocolloids. The production of the particles is applicable to other antibodies which extends the range of potential target contaminants.
    Keywords: PAH ; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ; MRI label ; NMR relaxometry ; Anti-B[a]P antibody ; Biogeochemical interface
    ISSN: 1618-2642
    E-ISSN: 1618-2650
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 December 2018, Vol.645, pp.192-204
    Description: Riverbank filtration systems are important structures that ensure the cleaning of infiltrating surface water for drinking water production. In our study, we investigated the potential risk for a breakthrough of environmentally aged silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) through these systems. Additionally, we identified factors leading to the remobilization of Ag NP accumulated in surficial sediment layers in order to gain insights into remobilization mechanisms. We conducted column experiments with Ag NP in an outdoor pilot plant consisting of water-saturated sediment columns mimicking a riverbank filtration system. The NP had previously been aged in river water, soil extract, and ultrapure water, respectively. We investigated the depth-dependent breakthrough and retention of NP. In subsequent batch experiments, we studied the processes responsible for a remobilization of Ag NP retained in the upper 10 cm of the sediments, induced by ionic strength reduction, natural organic matter (NOM), and mechanical forces. We determined the amount of remobilized Ag by ICP-MS and differentiated between particulate and ionic Ag after remobilization using GFAAS. The presence of Ag-containing heteroaggregates was investigated by combining filtration with single-particle ICP-MS. Single and erratic Ag breakthrough events were mainly found in 30 cm depth and Ag NP were accumulated in the upper 20 cm of the columns. Soil-aged Ag NP showed the lowest retention of only 54%. Remobilization was induced by the reduction of ionic strength and the presence of NOM in combination with mechanical forces. The presence of calcium in the aging- as well as the remobilizing media reduced the remobilization potential. Silver NP were mainly remobilized as heteroaggregates with natural colloids, while dissolution played a minor role. Our study indicates that the breakthrough potential of Ag NP in riverbank filtration systems is generally low, but the aging in soil increases their mobility. Remobilization processes are associated to co-mobilization with natural colloids.
    Keywords: Heteroaggregation ; Nanoparticle Transformation ; Breakthrough ; Mobility ; Reversibility ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 21 May 2013, Vol.47(10), pp.5083-91
    Description: The fate of engineered nanoparticles in environmental systems is controlled by changes in colloidal stability and their interaction with different environmental surfaces. Little is known about nanoparticle-surface interactions on the basis of sorption isotherms under quasi-equilibrium conditions, although sorption isotherms are a valuable means of studying sorbate-sorbent interactions. We tested the extent to which the sorption of engineered silver nanoparticles (nAg) from stable and unstable suspensions to model (sorbents with specific chemical functional groups) and environmental (plant leaves and sand) surfaces can be described by classical sorption isotherms. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) qualitative and quantitative analyses were also used to assess the morphology and nanomechanical parameters of the covered surfaces. The sorption of nAg from stable suspensions was nonlinear and best described by the Langmuir isotherm. Langmuir coefficients varied with sorbent surface chemistry. For nAg sorption from an unstable suspension, the sorption isotherms did not follow any classical sorption models, suggesting interplay between aggregation and sorption. The validity of the Langmuir isotherm suggests monolayer sorption, which can be explained by the blocking effect due to electrostatic repulsion of individual nanoparticles. In unstable suspensions, aggregates are instead formed in suspension and then sorbed, formed on the surface itself, or formed in both ways.
    Keywords: Models, Chemical ; Metal Nanoparticles -- Chemistry ; Silver -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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