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  • Baveye, Philippe  (72)
  • Baveye, Philippe C  (72)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 04 April 2017, Vol.114(14), pp.E2802-E2803
    Description: In their recent article, Coyte et al. (1) use an innovative combination of microfluidic experiments, mechanistic models, and game theory to study the impact of physical microenvironments on the activity of bacteria in porous media. The authors find that hydrodynamics can profoundly affect...
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Environment
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, December 2016, Vol.64, pp.96-97
    Description: In a recent article in this journal, Duffy et al. (2016) present a well thought-out list of points to pay attention to in order to maximize the chances that a manuscript, submitted for publication, sail through the review process and eventually get printed. There is no doubt that this thorough...
    Keywords: Nursing
    ISSN: 0020-7489
    E-ISSN: 1873-491X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 2011, Vol.222(12), pp.1998-2010
    Description: ► The individual-based INDISIM-SOM model is far more sensitive to some parameters than to others. ► Key parameters for the evolution of C and N are microbial maintenance, energy, and death probability. ► The nitrification rate, in particular, appears highly affected by the death probability. ► The sensitivity analysis indicates what simplification of the model is possible. ► It also shows which parameters need to be evaluated with more accuracy than is currently achievable. The fate of soil carbon and nitrogen compounds in soils in response to climate change is currently the object of significant research. In particular, there is much interest in the development of a new generation of micro-scale models of soil ecosystems processes. Crucial to the elaboration of such models is the ability to describe the growth and metabolism of small numbers of individual microorganisms, distributed in a highly heterogeneous environment. In this context, the key objective of the research described in this article was to further develop an individual-based soil organic matter model, INDISIM-SOM, first proposed a few years ago, and to assess its performance with a broader experimental data set than previously considered. INDISIM-SOM models the dynamics and evolution of carbon and nitrogen associated with organic matter in soils. The model involves a number of state variables and parameters related to soil organic matter and microbial activity, including growth and decay of microbial biomass, temporal evolutions of easily hydrolysable N, mineral N in ammonium and nitrate, CO and O . The present article concentrates on the biotic components of the model. Simulation results demonstrate that the model can be calibrated to provide good fit to experimental data from laboratory incubation experiments performed on three different types of Mediterranean soils. In addition, analysis of the sensitivity toward its biotic parameters shows that the model is far more sensitive to some parameters, i.e., the microbial maintenance energy and the probability of random microbial death, than to others. These results suggest that, in the future, research should focus on securing better measurements of these parameters, on environmental determinants of the switch from active to dormant states, and on the causes of random cell death in soil ecosystems.
    Keywords: Individual-Based Model ; Soil Microbial Activity ; Soil Organic Matter ; C and N Mineralization ; Microbial Parameters ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, November 2013, Vol.95, pp.231-235
    Description: In the abundant literature dealing with the monetary valuation, or monetization, of ecosystem services (MES), with very few exceptions, the concept is presented as having emerged in 1997. In fact, there is a long history, starting in the late fifties but largely ignored, of sustained attempts to assign monetary values to nature's services. These early efforts encountered many conceptual and methodological roadblocks, which could not be resolved and led a number of researchers to argue that monetary valuation was not a fruitful approach. It is in that context that MES was hailed by some in 1997 as a promising way to integrate environmental goods and services into the logic of economic markets. Knowledge of the full timeline casts a very different light, in particular on the difficulties currently encountered in the practice of MES; far from being the expected growing pains of a young discipline, these difficulties turn out to be long-standing problems that have eluded solution over the last half-century and appear intrinsically unresolvable. This perspective suggests that, at this point, it is advisable to look at alternatives to MES for the integration of nature into economic decisions. All rights reserved, Elsevier
    Keywords: Ecosystem Services ; Valuation ; Commodification ; Nature'S Services ; Environmental Sustainability ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology ; Economics
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    E-ISSN: 1873-6106
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 21 March 2015, Vol.285, pp.137-139
    Description: In recent years, several authors have suggested repeatedly that visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) could be an advantageous alternative to traditional wet-laboratory methods for the measurement of heavy metal concentrations in soils. In this comment, we argue that, on the contrary, VNIRS is of limited practical use in such a context and should not serve as an excuse to get rid of direly needed laboratory facilities. The key reasons are that VNIRS spectra are irremediably insensitive to the presence of heavy metals, that the effect of soil moisture and surface rugosity on VNIR sensing still has to be satisfactorily accounted for, and finally that VNIRS probes an extremely thin layer of soil at the surface, which is generally irrelevant in terms of plant growth. Given these intrinsic limitations, it seems indicated to put the persistent VNIRS myth to rest, and to explore other measurement techniques that may have more potential.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Law
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    E-ISSN: 1873-3336
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 February 2015, Vol.298, pp.24-38
    Description: Since the late 1970s, thousands of scholarly articles, books and reports have dealt with the application of the mathematical theory of geostatistics to characterize the spatial “variability” of soils, and to produce soil property maps. Insensibly, this application of geostatistics appears to have become an end in itself, and the reasons why one should be concerned about the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties are rarely if ever made clear any more. In this context, the purpose of the present critical review article is to return to some of the primal questions that motivated this interest in the topic several decades ago. After a brief review of the background behind the application of geostatistics to soils, a number of situations and modeling efforts are described where, even though soils undoubtedly vary spatially, nothing seems to be gained practically by explicitly accounting for their spatial heterogeneity in order to reach a number of management or research objectives. Contrastedly, whenever the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties in the field might be relevant, it is shown that very different perceptions about it emerge, depending on the type of measurement that is performed. This suggests that the approach one adopts to characterize spatially-varying soil properties should be dictated by whatever goal one pursues. For example, if the objective is to evaluate the “ecosystem services” of soils in a given region and to reach decisions about them, one should probably first consider the (typically large) spatial scale that is most relevant to the decision-making process, then proceed via a top-down approach to characterize the spatial heterogeneity of soil services, if and when appropriate. In other contexts, it is argued that measurements should be patterned after the behavior of plants or microbes present in soils, relative to which, unfortunately, the macroscopic measurements that are now routinely carried out appear largely irrelevant or misleading. The article concludes with a number of potential lessons learned from the analysis of the research on the spatial heterogeneity of soils, which bear relevance to the broader practice of soil science.
    Keywords: Soil Heterogeneity ; Mathematical Modeling ; Microheterogeneity ; Microenvironment ; Plant Roots ; Measuring Devices ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, December 2017, Vol.555, pp.253-256
    Description: In the last decade, X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become widely used to characterize the geometry and topology of the pore space of soils and natural porous media. Regardless of the resolution of CT images, a fundamental problem associated with their use, for example as a starting point in simulation efforts, is that sub-resolution pores are not detected. Over the last few years, a particular type of modeling method, known as "Grey" or "Partial Bounce Back" Lattice-Boltzmann (LB), has been adopted by increasing numbers of researchers to try to account for sub-resolution pores in the modeling of water and solute transport in natural porous media. In this short paper, we assess the extent to which Grey LB methods indeed offer a workable solution to the problem at hand. We conclude that, in spite of significant computational advances, a major experimental hurdle related to the evaluation of the penetrability of sub-resolution pores, is blocking the way ahead. This hurdle will need to be cleared before Grey LB can become a credible option in the microscale modeling of soils and sediments. A necessarily interdisciplinary effort, involving both modelers and experimentalists, is needed to clear the path forward.
    Keywords: Computer Modeling ; Transport Processes ; Image Resolution ; Measurement ; Interdisciplinary Research ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(9), p.e0137205
    Description: There is currently a significant need to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes by integrating physical, chemical and biological measurements on soils at microscopic scales to help produce 3D maps of the related properties. Because of technological limitations, most chemical and biological measurements can be carried out only on exposed soil surfaces or 2-dimensional cuts through soil samples. Methods need to be developed to produce 3D maps of soil properties based on spatial sequences of 2D maps. In this general context, the objective of the research described here was to develop a method to generate 3D maps of soil chemical properties at the microscale by combining 2D SEM-EDX data with 3D X-ray computed tomography images. A statistical approach using the regression tree method and ordinary kriging applied to the residuals was developed and applied to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron, and oxygen at the microscale. The spatial correlation between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the chemical maps made it possible to use a regression-tree model as an initial step to predict the 3D chemical composition. For chemical elements, e.g., iron, that are sparsely distributed in a soil sample, the regression-tree model provides a good prediction, explaining as much as 90% of the variability in some of the data. However, for chemical elements that are more homogenously distributed, such as carbon, silicon, or oxygen, the additional kriging of the regression tree residuals improved significantly the prediction with an increase in the R2 value from 0.221 to 0.324 for carbon, 0.312 to 0.423 for silicon, and 0.218 to 0.374 for oxygen, respectively. The present research develops for the first time an integrated experimental and theoretical framework, which combines geostatistical methods with imaging techniques to unveil the 3-D chemical structure of soil at very fine scales. The methodology presented in this study can be easily adapted and applied to other types of data such as bacterial or fungal population densities for the 3D characterization of microbial distribution.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Practice, 01 September 2014, Vol.16(3), pp.246-248
    Description: There is widespread belief, currently, that financial markets are well equipped, and should be given the responsibility, to deal with environmental management. In this context, the commodification of nature would appear to serve useful purposes. This article argues that, from the viewpoint...
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1466-0466
    E-ISSN: 1466-0474
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 July 2018, Vol.630, pp.146-153
    Description: Thallium (Tl) is a toxic trace metal, whose geochemical behavior and biological effects are closely controlled by its chemical speciation in the environment. However, little tends to be known about this speciation of Tl in soil and plant systems that directly affect the safety of food supplies. In this context, the objective of the present study was to elaborate an efficient method to separate and detect Tl(I) and Tl(III) species for soil and plant samples. This method involves the selective adsorption of Tl(I) on microcolumns filled with immobilized oxine, in the presence of DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), followed by DTPA-enhanced ultrasonic and heating-induced extraction, coupled with ICP-MS detection. The method was characterized by a LOD of 0.037 μg/L for Tl(I) and 0.18 μg/L for Tl(III) in 10  mL samples. With this method, a second objective of the research was to assess the speciation of Tl in pot and field soils and in green cabbage crops. Experimental results suggest that DTPA extracted Tl was mainly present as Tl(I) in soils (〉95%). Tl in hyperaccumulator plant green cabbage was also mainly present as Tl(I) (〉90%). With respect to Tl uptake in plants, this study provides direct evidence that green cabbage mainly takes up Tl(I) from soil, and transports it into the aboveground organs. In soils, Tl(III) is reduced to Tl(I) even at the surface where the chemical environment promotes oxidation. This observation is conducive to understanding the mechanisms of Tl isotope fractionation in the soil-plant system. Based on geochemical fraction studies, the reducible fraction was the main source of Tl getting accumulated by plants. These results indicate that the improved analytical method presented in this study offers an economical, simple, fast, and sensitive approach for the separation of Tl species present in soils at trace levels.
    Keywords: Tl Speciation ; Extraction ; Soil ; Green Cabbage ; Geochemical Fraction ; Tl Bioavailability ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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