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  • Behmanesh, Mehrdad  (7)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 03 July 2016, Vol.46(5), pp.454-460
    Description: Feeding experiments with hairy root cultures of Linum album have established that the extracellular coniferaldehyde is a good precursor for production of two lignans: lariciresinol (LARI) and pinoresinol (PINO). The accumulation of the LARI, PINO, and podophyllotoxin (PTOX) in hairy roots were...
    Keywords: 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)Cinnamic Acid ; Coniferaldehyde ; Gene Expression ; Hairy Roots ; Lignan ; Linum Album ; Biology
    ISSN: 1082-6068
    E-ISSN: 1532-2297
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Planta, 2018, Vol.248(5), pp.1289-1306
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-018-2973-z Byline: Hannaneh Tashackori (1), Mohsen Sharifi (1), Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi (2), Mehrdad Behmanesh (3), Naser Safaie (4) Keywords: Elicitation; Gene expression; Hairy root; Lignan; Linum album; Phenylpropanoids Abstract: Main conclusion Elicitation of Linum album hairy roots by Piriformospora indica cell wall induced the target genes and specific metabolites in phenylpropanoid pathway and shifted the amino acid metabolism toward the phenolic compound production. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to defend themselves against various biotic stresses. One of these responses is the production of metabolites that act as defense compounds. Manipulation of plant cell cultures by biotic elicitors is a useful strategy for improving the production of valuable secondary metabolites. This study focused on hairy root culture of Linum album, an important source for lignans. The effects of cell wall elicitor extracted from Piriformospora indica on phenylpropanoid derivatives were evaluated to identify metabolic traits related to biotic stress tolerance. Significant increases in lignin, lignans lariciresinol, podophyllotoxin, and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin phenolic acids: cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and salicylic acid flavonoids: myricetin, kaempferol, and diosmin were observed in response to the fungal elicitor. In addition, the gene expression levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and pinoresinol--lariciresinol reductase significantly increased after elicitation. The composition of free amino acids was altered under the elicitation. Phenylalanine and tyrosine, as precursors of phenylpropanoid metabolites, were increased, but alanine, serine, and glutamic acid significantly decreased in response to the fungal elicitor, suggesting that the amino acid pathway may be shifted toward biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and precursors of the phenylpropanoid pathway. These results provided evidence that up-regulation of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway in response to the fungal elicitor resulted in enhanced metabolic responses associated with the protection in L. album. This approach can also be applied to improve lignan production. Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 1781 3962, grid.412266.5, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115-154, Tehran, Iran (2) 0000 0000 9618 7703, grid.411622.2, Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran (3) 0000 0001 1781 3962, grid.412266.5, Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran (4) 0000 0001 1781 3962, grid.412266.5, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Article History: Registration Date: 06/08/2018 Received Date: 14/03/2018 Accepted Date: 04/08/2018 Online Date: 14/08/2018
    Keywords: Elicitation ; Gene expression ; Hairy root ; Lignan ; Linum album ; Phenylpropanoids
    ISSN: 0032-0935
    E-ISSN: 1432-2048
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC), 2016, Vol.127(1), pp.187-194
    Description: Linum album Kotschy ex Boiss accumulates some secondary metabolites from phenylpropanoid pathway: lignans with antiviral and anticancer properties such as podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin (6MPTOX) and phenolic acids with role in plant defense such as cinnamic, coumaric, caffeic, ferulic acid and salicylic acid (SA). In this research, profiles of lignan and phenolic compounds of L. album hairy roots exposed to mycelium extract of Piriformospora indica were investigated. The mycelium extracts 1 % (v/v) reduce the hairy roots growth, while 24 h after the treatment PTOX and 6MPTOX production were stimulated reaching a maximum 91.019 µg g −1 and 11.54 mg g −1 dry weight (DW), respectively. For lariciresinol, the greatest amount was seen 24 h after the elicitation, about 157.3 µg g −1 DW, 1.6 times more than the control. P. indica induced the highest levels of phenols and flavonoids at 72 h and flavonol at 48 h after elicitation in the hairy roots; 422.69, 15.41 and 15.14 µg g −1 DW, respectively. Moreover, the content of phenolic acids such as; cinnamic, coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid significantly increased in treated hairy roots after 12 h, compared to the control. A moderate increase in SA content in hairy roots exposed to mycelium extract was observed within 12 h after exposure to the elicitor. Also, fungal extract effects were followed by increasing in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity which peaked at 24 h by 1.37-fold greater than the control. The enhancing effect of fungal elicitor on lignans production was correlated with the increased in PAL activity and phenolic acids contents.
    Keywords: Hairy root ; Lignan ; Linum album ; Piriformospora indica ; Phenolic acid
    ISSN: 0167-6857
    E-ISSN: 1573-5044
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Planta, 2017, Vol.245(6), pp.1165-1178
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-017-2671-2 Byline: Neda Javadian (1), Ghasem Karimzadeh (1), Mohsen Sharifi (2), Ahmad Moieni (1), Mehrdad Behmanesh (3) Keywords: Linum album; Podophyllotoxin; Tetraploidy; Gene expression; Flow cytometry Abstract: Main conclusion Induction of tetraploidy was performed and podophyllotoxin production increased by upregulating the expression level and enzyme activity of genes related to its biosynthesis in tetraploid compared to diploid Linum album. Linum album is a valuable medicinal plant that produces antiviral and anticancer compounds including podophyllotoxin (PTOX). To achieve homogeneous materials, in vitro diploid clones were established, and their nodal segments were exposed to different concentrations and durations of colchicine. This resulted in successful tetraploidy induction, confirmed by flow cytometry, and is being reported for the first time. The highest efficiency of tetraploid induction (22%) was achieved after 72 h exposure to 2.5-mM colchicine treatment. The stable tetraploids were produced after being subcultured three times, and their ploidy stability was confirmed after each subculture. The effects of autopolyploidy were measured on the morphological and phytochemical characteristics, as well as enzyme activity and the expression levels of some key genes involved in the PTOX biosynthetic pathway, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamoyl-Coa reductase (CCR), cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR). The tetraploid plants had larger leaves and stomata (length and width) and lower density stomata. Increasing the ploidy level from diploid to tetraploid resulted in 1.39- and 1.23-fold enhancement of PTOX production, respectively, in the leaves and stem. The increase in PTOX content was associated with upregulated activities of some enzymes studied related to its biosynthetic pathway and the expression of the corresponding genes. The expression of the PAL gene and PLR enzymatic activity had the most positive correlation with the ploidy level in both leaf and stem tissues. Our results verified that autotetraploid induction is a useful breeding method, remarkably increasing the PTOX content in the leaves and stem of L. album. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, P. O. Box 14115-336, Tehran, Iran (2) Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran (3) Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Article History: Registration Date: 06/03/2017 Received Date: 15/12/2016 Accepted Date: 04/03/2017 Online Date: 14/03/2017 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00425-017-2671-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Linum album ; Podophyllotoxin ; Tetraploidy ; Gene expression ; Flow cytometry
    ISSN: 0032-0935
    E-ISSN: 1432-2048
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, October 2016, Vol.107, pp.374-384
    Description: Manipulation of cell culture media by elicitors is one of most important strategies to inducing secondary metabolism for the production of valuable metabolites. In this investigation, inducing effect of chitosan on physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Boiss. The results showed that chitosan concentration and time of elicitation are determinants of the effectiveness of the elicitor. Accumulation of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine [Phe] and tyrosine [Tyr]), phenylpropanoid compounds (phenolic acids [PAs] and echinacoside [ECH]), hydrogen peroxide (H O ) production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and gene expression, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], peroxidase [POX], catalase [CAT]) activities were altered by changing the exposure time of elicitation. Results showed that, upon elicitation with chitosan, oxidative events were induced, antioxidant responses of . cells were boosted through enhanced activity of an effective series of scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX), and biosynthesis of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ECH and PAs [cinnamic, -coumaric and, caffeic acids]). The increase in amino acid content and PAL activity at early days of exposure to chitosan was related with rises in phenolic compounds. These results provide evidence that chitosan by up-regulation of gene differentially improves the production of phenylpropanoid compounds, which are of medical commercial value with good biotechnological prospects.
    Keywords: Aromatic Amino Acids ; Antioxidant Enzymes ; Chitosan ; Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase ; Phenylpropanoid Compounds ; Plant Cell Culture ; Scrophularia Striata Boiss ; Botany ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0981-9428
    E-ISSN: 1873-2690
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cell Journal, 01 October 2016, Vol.17(3), pp.502-509
    Description: Objective Podophyllotoxin (PTOX), a natural compound in numerous plants, contains remarkable biological properties that include anti-tumor, anti-viral such as anti-human im- munodeficiency virus (HIV) activities. In order to avoid its adverse effects, various com- pounds have been derived from...
    Keywords: Podophyllotoxin ; Cancer ; Apoptosis ; Gene Expression ; Real-Time Pcr ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 2228-5806
    E-ISSN: 2228-5814
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Physiology, January 2019, Vol.232, pp.115-126
    Description: Schematic representation of down-regulation effect on phenylpropanoids. Lignans are diphenolic compounds produced in plants via coupling of two coniferyl alcohol molecules with the aid of a dirigent protein to form pinoresinol (PINO). The latter is reduced via lariciresinol (LARI) to secoisolariciresinol by the bifunctional pinoresinol–lariciresinol reductase (PLR). In this study, we clarified the consequences of altered lignan biosynthesis on amino acids, phenolics compounds and lignin in the hairy roots of with an ihpRNAi construct to silence gene expression. Down-regulation of resulted in up to an 8.3 and 3.3-time increased PINO and LARI content respectively, and reduced levels of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin (6-MPTOX). By Suppression of expression, the metabolites belonging to shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways are conducted to phenolic compounds and lignin accumulations. Although PINO and LARI were induced in response to fungal elicitor, the accumulation of PTOX and 6-MPTOX did not occur in down-regulated roots. Our result also demonstrated variation in amino acids, phenolic compounds and lignin levels in presence of the fungal elicitation in down regulated-roots. This data assert the accumulation of aryltetralin lignans in interactions with plant pathogens by PLR activity and the importance this enzyme for defense against pathogens in .
    Keywords: Pinoresinol ; 6-Methoxy Podophyllotoxin ; Fungal Elicitor ; Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase ; Linum Album ; Hairy Root ; Botany
    ISSN: 0176-1617
    E-ISSN: 16181328
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