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  • Berger, C.  (2,663)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, September 2012, Vol.130(3), pp.e600-6
    Description: To describe measles vaccination patterns in a cohort of Swiss children aged up to 3 years insured with a single health insurer. A dynamic cohort study evaluating measles immunizations patterns in children born between 2006 and 2008 was conducted. Time-to-event analysis was used to describe timing of measles immunization. Effective vaccine coverage was calculated by using an area under the curve approach. In the study cohort, 62.6% of 13-month-old children were up-to-date for the first measles immunization (recommended at 12 months of age). Approximately 59% of 25-month-old children were up-to-date for the second measles immunization (recommended at 15-24 months of age). Most doses were delivered during months in a child's life when well-child visits are recommended (eg, 12 months of age). For second measles vaccine dose, accelerations in vaccine delivery occurred at time points for well-child visits during the months 19 and 25 of age but with lower final uptake than for the first measles vaccine dose. Until their second birthday, children in our cohort spent on average 177 days and 89 days susceptible to measles due to policy recommendations and additional delays, respectively. In a group of children aged 6 months to 2 years reflecting the age distribution in our cohort, effective vaccine coverage was only 48.6%. Timing and timeliness of measles immunizations influence effective population vaccine coverage and should be routinely reported in addition to coverage whenever possible. Proposed timing and relation of recommended vaccinations to well-child visits could be relevant aspects in optimizing measles vaccine coverage to reach measles elimination.
    Keywords: Immunity, Herd ; Immunization Schedule ; Measles -- Prevention & Control ; Measles Vaccine -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 2
    In: Social Development, May 2012, Vol.21(2), pp.396-413
    Description: The present study addresses the influence that group norms exert on individual aggressive and prosocial behavior. The study hypothesis is that for early adolescents who change their peer group affiliations, the characteristics of the group they are leaving (departing‐group influence) are not as influential as those of the group that they are joining (attracting‐group influence). From a larger sample of fifth and sixth graders who were followed over a one‐year period, 198 early adolescents were identified as those who changed peer group affiliations. Peer nominations on aggression, prosociality, social preference and popularity, and social network information were collected. Results confirmed that there were significant attracting‐ but not departing‐group influences on aggression and prosociality. Expected associations between aggression, prosocial behavior, and social status were confirmed. The discussion is framed around a social‐ecological perspective that emphasizes the short‐term adaptive nature of aggressive behavior in some peer groups and the need for considering social mobility when assessing group influence on individual behavior.
    Keywords: Peers/Peer Relations ; Aggression ; Prosocial Behavior
    ISSN: 0961-205X
    E-ISSN: 1467-9507
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Research on Adolescence, September 2013, Vol.23(3), pp.586-595
    Description: This study examined how status (popularity) and friendship relations affected the development of adolescents’ dislike relations (i.e., antipathy networks) over time. Three competing hypotheses were formulated about the role of status: antipathy relations result from either in status (competition hypothesis) or in status when lower status peers reject higher status peers (envy hypothesis) or vice versa (snobbism hypothesis). Hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal sample of adolescents from hile (fifth to sixth grade; 52% boys; = 273). Antipathy and friendship networks were examined simultaneously using longitudinal social network modeling (). Higher status adolescents were more likely to reject their lower status peers, in line with the snobbism hypothesis. Furthermore, best friends tended to agree upon which peers to reject over time.
    Keywords: Youth -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 1050-8392
    E-ISSN: 1532-7795
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Sex Roles, 2018, Vol.78(9), pp.625-636
    Description: The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms ( n  = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms ( n  = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms ( n  = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 ( M age  = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.
    Keywords: Physical aggression ; Prosociality ; Stochastic-actor based modeling (RSIENA) ; Same-sex/mixed-sex contexts ; Social networks ; Selection ; Influence ; Perceived popularity
    ISSN: 0360-0025
    E-ISSN: 1573-2762
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, June 2013, Vol.110(6), pp.1681-1690
    Description: A protocol for the efficient isotopic labeling of large G protein‐coupled receptors with tryptophan in as expression host was developed that sufficiently suppressed the naturally occurring L‐tryptophan indole lyase, which cleaves tryptophan into indole, pyruvate, and ammonia resulting in scrambling of the isotopic label in the protein. Indole produced by the tryptophanase is naturally used as messenger for cell–cell communication. Detailed analysis of different process conducts led to the optimal expression strategy, which mimicked cell–cell communication by the addition of indole during expression. Discrete concentrations of indole and N‐L‐tryptophan at dedicated time points in the fermentation drastically increased the isotopic labeling efficiency. Isotope scrambling was only observed in glutamine, asparagine, and arginine side chains but not in the backbone. This strategy allows producing specifically tryptophan labeled membrane proteins at high concentrations avoiding the disadvantages of the often low yields of auxotrophic strains. In the fermentation process carried out according to this protocol, we produced ∼15 mg of tryptophan labeled neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 per liter medium. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1681–1690. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. A protocol for the efficient isotopic labelling of a G protein‐coupled receptor with tryptophan in as expression host is described. The metabolization of the N labelled tryptophan by the L‐tryptophan indole lyase was sufficiently suppressed by an indole controlled process conduct. Thus, specifically N tryptophan labeled neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 was produced in which isotopic scrambling was reduced to a minimum.
    Keywords: Escherichia Coli ; G Protein‐Coupled Receptor ; Neuropeptide Y Receptor Type 2 ; Stable Isotope Labeling ; Tryptophan ; Tryptophanase
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    E-ISSN: 1097-0290
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Neurophysiology, August 2015, Vol.126(8), pp.e103-e104
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2015.04.153 Byline: C. Berger, M. Fleischer, L. Schulze, K. Prehn, G. Domes Abstract: Empathizing is the ability to identify the mental states of others, for predicting their behavior and responding with appropriate emotion. Two routes to empathy are discussed: One relatively automatically process, with fast emotional responding and late appraisal. A second way is less automatic with early cognitive appraisal. Brain areas with structural changes related to empathy comprising regions from the mirror neuron system (MNS) and the default mode network (DMN). Positive and negative associations between empathizing and regional gray matter (GM) volume were found in healthy controls in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), insula and superior temporal sulcus. Facing these divergent correlative effects, we compared GM volume of healthy females with low and high empathic behavior.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1388-2457
    E-ISSN: 1872-8952
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Neurophysiology, August 2015, Vol.126(8), pp.e151-e151
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2015.04.250 Byline: C. Berger, P.C. Koo, J. Bartz, P.K. Wybitul, J. Hoppner Abstract: The underlying neurophysiological characteristics in Major Depressive Disorders(MDD) have been examined intensively for the past decades. Some studies have indicated pattern of electroencephalography(EEG) activity that distinguishes MDD patients from healthy subjects. However, the correlation between either clinical symptoms such as psychometric scales or sleeping disturbances and EEG activity were seldom investigated to date. Therefore this study aims to examine the correlation between depressive and psychomotor symptoms as well as sleeping disturbances with EEG power values and with current source density (CSD) analysis.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1388-2457
    E-ISSN: 1872-8952
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Adolescence, January 2016, Vol.46, pp.45-56
    Description: The present study examines psychological (e.g., Machiavellianism) and social (i.e., perceived popularity) motives for bullying, exploring the effects that classroom prestige norms for physical and relational aggression may have on these associations. A longitudinal multilevel study design was adopted, which included 978 5th to 7th graders from four Chilean schools. Participants were assessed three times over one year on self reports on bullying and Machiavellianism, and peer reports on popularity. Classroom prestige norms were calculated as the within classroom association between peer perceived coolness and aggression. Both Machiavellianism and perceived popularity were associated with bullying. However, hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that Machiavellianism, but not perceived popularity, predicted bullying after controlling for baseline scores. Classroom prestige norms for relational aggression increased the association between Machiavellianism and bullying. Separate models were tested for boys and girls, showing no differences. Results are discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations.
    Keywords: Bullying ; Machiavellianism ; Popularity ; Prestige Norms ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0140-1971
    E-ISSN: 1095-9254
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2016, Vol.45(9), pp.1877-1888
    Description: Although studies on peer relations acknowledge that having friends constitutes a protective factor against being victimized by peers at school, it is not enough for this factor to operate. The quality of these friendships does play a role too. The present study explored the moderating role of friendship-quality dimensions (closeness, support, disclosure, and affection) on peer victimization and wellbeing. 614 young adolescents (4th to 6th graders, 50.1 % girls) were assessed three times over 1 year. Analyses were conducted to determine moderation effects, differentiated by gender. Results showed that only disclosure and support interact with victimization and affect wellbeing, especially for girls. Implications for studying peer relations, acknowledging gender differences, are discussed.
    Keywords: Friendship-quality ; Wellbeing ; Victimization ; Adolescence ; Gender ; Disclosure ; Support
    ISSN: 0047-2891
    E-ISSN: 1573-6601
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2015, Vol.44(12), pp.2230-2244
    Description: The present study tests whether aggression and prosocial behavior can coexist as part of a socially functional and adaptive profile among early adolescents. Using a person-centered approach, the study examined early adolescents’ likelihood of being classified into profiles involving aggressive and prosocial behavior, social status (popular, liked, cool), machiavellianism, and both affective and cognitive components of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively). Participants were 1170 early adolescents (10–12 years of age; 52 % male) from four schools in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Through latent profile analysis, three profiles emerged (normative-low aggressive, high prosocial-low aggressive, and high aggressive-high popular status). Both empathic concern and perspective taking were higher in the high prosocial-low aggressive profile, whereas the high aggressive-high popular status profile had the lowest scores on both empathy components as well as machiavellianism. No profile emerged where aggressive and prosocial behaviors were found to co-exist, or to be significantly above the mean. The results underscore that aggressive behavior is highly contextual and likely culturally specific, and that the study of behavioral profiles should consider social status as well as socio-emotional adjustment indicators. These complex associations should be taken into consideration when planning prevention and intervention efforts to reduce aggression or school bullying and to promote positive peer relationships.
    Keywords: Aggression ; Prosocial ; Social status ; Machiavellianism ; Empathy ; Perspective taking
    ISSN: 0047-2891
    E-ISSN: 1573-6601
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