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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Berger, David
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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    British Medical Journal Publishing Group
    Language: English
    In: BMJ, 20, 20 April April 2017 2017, Vol.357
    Description: Serious questions must be asked about its standards of governance
    Keywords: India ; Decision Making ; Physicians ; Associations ; Medical Ethics ; Credibility ; Corruption ; Councils ; Medical Council-India;
    E-ISSN: 1756-1833
    E-ISSN: 17561833
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The American Naturalist, 01 October 2012, Vol.180(4), pp.464-480
    Description: Abstract Although understanding female reproduction is crucial for population demography, determining how and to what relative extent it is constrained by different ecological factors is complicated by difficulties in studying the links between individual behavior, life history, and fitness in nature. We present data on females in a natural population of the butterfly Leptidea sinapis . These data were combined with climate records and laboratory estimates of life-history parameters to predict the relative impact of different ecological constraints on female fitness in the wild. Using simulation models, we partitioned effects of male courtship, host plant availability, and temperature on female fitness. Results of these models indicate that temperature is the most constraining factor on female fitness, followed by host plant availability; the short-term negative effects of male courtship that were detected in the field study were less important in models predicting female reproductive success over the entire life span. In the simulations, females with more reproductive reserves were more limited by the ecological variables. Reproductive physiology and egg-laying behavior were therefore predicted to be co-optimized but reach different optima for females of different body sizes; this prediction is supported by the empirical data. This study thus highlights the need for studying behavioral and life-history variation in orchestration to achieve a more complete picture of both demographic and evolutionary processes in naturally variable and unpredictable environments.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Behavioral sciences -- Ethology -- Animal behavior ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Parasitology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Developmental biology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Health sciences -- Health care industry -- Health information ; Social sciences -- Population studies -- Mortality ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Behavioral sciences -- Ethology -- Animal behavior ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Parasitology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Developmental biology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Health sciences -- Health care industry -- Health information ; Social sciences -- Population studies -- Mortality ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 00030147
    E-ISSN: 15375323
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: American Economic Review, 2014, Vol.104(5), pp.112-115
    Description: We estimate how durable expenditures respond to government spending shocks at different points in the business cycle using a nonlinear VAR approach that allows for the durable multiplier to vary smoothly with the state of the economy. We find strong evidence that the aggregate durable spending response to fiscal shocks is substantially larger during expansions than during recessions, in contrast to what has been has been observed for the aggregate multiplier. We argue that these results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of the fixed cost model of durable demand in Berger and Vavra (2012).(E21, E22, E32, E62, G01)
    Keywords: Public Expenditures – Economic Aspects ; Recessions – Analysis ; Recessions – United States ; Multiplier Effect (Economics) – Analysis
    ISSN: 0002-8282
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, September 2014, Vol.27(9), pp.1975-1989
    Description: Theory predicts the emergence of generalists in variable environments and antagonistic pleiotropy to favour specialists in constant environments, but empirical data seldom support such generalist–specialist trade‐offs. We selected for generalists and specialists in the dung fly (Diptera: Sepsidae) under conditions that we predicted would reveal antagonistic pleiotropy and multivariate trade‐offs underlying thermal reaction norms for juvenile development. We performed replicated laboratory evolution using four treatments: adaptation at a hot (31 °C) or a cold (15 °C) temperature, or under regimes fluctuating between these temperatures, either within or between generations. After 20 generations, we assessed parental effects and genetic responses of thermal reaction norms for three correlated life‐history traits: size at maturity, juvenile growth rate and juvenile survival. We find evidence for antagonistic pleiotropy for performance at hot and cold temperatures, and a temperature‐mediated trade‐off between juvenile survival and size at maturity, suggesting that trade‐offs associated with environmental tolerance can arise via intensified evolutionary compromises between genetically correlated traits. However, despite this antagonistic pleiotropy, we found no support for the evolution of increased thermal tolerance breadth at the expense of reduced maximal performance, suggesting low genetic variance in the generalist–specialist dimension.
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Canalization ; Generalist ; Multivariate Trade‐Off ; Performance Curve ; Phenotypic Plasticity ; Reaction Norm ; Specialist ; Temperature Tolerance
    ISSN: 1010-061X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9101
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The American Economic Review, 1 May 2014, Vol.104(5), pp.112-115
    Description: We estimate how durable expenditures respond to government spending shocks at different points in the business cycle using a nonlinear VAR approach that allows for the durable multiplier to vary smoothly with the state of the economy. We find strong evidence that the aggregate durable spending response to fiscal shocks is substantially larger during expansions than during recessions, in contrast to what has been has been observed for the aggregate multiplier. We argue that these results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of the fixed cost model of durable demand in Berger and Vavra (2012).(E21, E22, E32, E62, G01)
    Keywords: Economics -- Economic conditions -- Economic fluctuations ; Behavioral sciences -- Behavioral economics -- Consumer behavior ; Political science -- Government -- Governance ; Business -- Business economics -- Commercial production ; Mathematics -- Applied mathematics -- Statistics ; Political science -- Government -- Governance ; Business -- Accountancy -- Financial accounting ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Financial economics ; Social sciences -- Human geography -- Housing ; Economics -- Economic principles -- Economic systems
    ISSN: 00028282
    E-ISSN: 19447981
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  • 6
    In: Econometrica, January 2015, Vol.83(1), pp.101-154
    Description: Are there times when durable spending is less responsive to economic stimulus? We argue that aggregate durable expenditures respond more sluggishly to economic shocks during recessions because microeconomic frictions lead to declines in the frequency of households' durable adjustment. We show this by first using indirect inference to estimate a heterogeneous agent incomplete markets model with fixed costs of durable adjustment to match consumption dynamics in PSID microdata. We then show that aggregating this model delivers an extremely procyclical Impulse Response Function (IRF) of durable spending to aggregate shocks. For example, the response of durable spending to an income shock in 1999 is estimated to be almost twice as large as if it occurred in 2009. This procyclical IRF holds in response to standard business cycle shocks as well as in response to various policy shocks, and it is robust to general equilibrium. After estimating this robust theoretical implication of micro frictions, we provide additional direct empirical evidence for its importance using both cross‐sectional and time‐series data.
    Keywords: Durables ; Fixed Costs ; Consumption ; Nonlinear Impulse Response ; Indirect Inference
    ISSN: 0012-9682
    E-ISSN: 1468-0262
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Genetics, December 2014, Vol.198(4), pp.1417-20
    Description: Empirical evidence for diminishing fitness returns of beneficial mutations supports Fisher's geometric model. We show that a similar pattern emerges through the phenomenon of regression to the mean and that few studies correct for it. Although biases are often small, regression to the mean has overemphasized diminishing returns and will hamper cross-study comparisons unless corrected for.
    Keywords: Fisher’s Geometric Model ; Adaptation ; Epistasis ; Fitness Landscape ; Regression to the Mean ; Epistasis, Genetic ; Models, Genetic
    ISSN: 00166731
    E-ISSN: 1943-2631
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Political Economy, 11/28/2018
    ISSN: 0022-3808
    E-ISSN: 1537-534X
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: British Medical Journal, April 11, 2015, Vol.350(8003), p.23(1)
    Description: The author states that if he were head of the NHS he would trust the professionalism of the people running it and their ability to devise creative, local solutions to address the challenges facing the organization. He asserts the need to set professionals free under a supportive administrative regime, free of bureaucracy and politically motivated goals, to ensure high quality patient care.
    Keywords: Patient Care – Quality Management ; Medical Care – Management ; Medical Care – United Kingdom ; Patient Satisfaction – Analysis
    ISSN: 1759-2151
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: British Medical Journal, June 20, 2015, Vol.350(8013), p.15(1)
    Description: The author criticises the Australian government for legislating to stop doctors blowing the whistle on substandard medical care given to asylum seekers. He informs that the Border Force Act 2015 passed by the Australian government will have the effect of gagging doctors working in AustraliaEs onshore and offshore detention centres for people seeking asylum, and even basic contravention of norms may result in a two year prison sentence. The author urges people of conscience and supporters of democracy to repeal this repressive legislation and promote openness, accountability and protection for whistleblowers.
    Keywords: Medical Care – Management ; Medical Care – Australia ; Physicians – Practice ; Health Policy – Analysis
    ISSN: 1759-2151
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