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  • Berger, J
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Physical review letters, 25 September 2015, Vol.115(13), pp.137402
    Description: We present a fully parameter-free density-functional approach for the accurate description of optical absorption spectra of insulators, semiconductors, and metals. We show that this can be achieved within time-dependent current-density-functional theory using a simple dynamical polarization functional. We derive this functional from physical principles that govern optical spectra. Our method is truly predictive because not a single parameter is used. In particular, we do not use an ad hoc material-dependent broadening parameter to compare theory to experiment as is usually done. Our approach is numerically efficient; the cost equals that of a calculation within the random-phase approximation.
    Keywords: Condensed Matter - Materials Science;
    ISSN: 00319007
    E-ISSN: 1079-7114
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 17 September 2012, Vol.83(9), p.856
    Description: Dr Mentzer and colleagues have taken an important first step in providing a laddered case definition for progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) in patients treated with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which is based on the evidence supporting the diagnosis.1 While designated for PML occurring with mAbs, these case definitions should be equally applicable to PML arising with other conditions. In the decades following its initial description in 1958,2 the diagnosis of PML was dependent on demonstrating the characteristic histopathological triad of demyelination, bizarre astrocytes and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei. The discovery of JC virus as the aetiology of PML in 19713 ultimately improved the diagnostic accuracy in tissue specimens. Despite descriptions of the characteristic lesions of PML on cranial MRIs shortly after the development of this technology,4 pathological confirmation remained a necessity until the introduction of PCR for JC virus DNA in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF).5
    Keywords: Accuracy ; Deoxyribonucleic Acid–DNA ; Multiple Sclerosis;
    ISSN: 0022-3050
    ISSN: 00223050
    E-ISSN: 1468-330X
    E-ISSN: 1468330X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015, Vol.109(1), pp.20-34
    Description: Why do some cultural items catch on and become more popular than others? Language is one of the basic foundations of culture. But what leads some phrases to become more culturally successful? There are multiple ways to convey the same thing and phrases with similar meanings often act as substitutes, competing for usage. A not so friendly person, for example, can be described as unfriendly or cold. We study how the senses shape cultural success, suggesting that compared with their semantic equivalents (e.g., unfriendly person), phrases which relate to senses in metaphoric ways (e.g., cold person) should be more culturally successful. Data from 5 million books over 200 years support this prediction: Sensory metaphors are used more frequently over time than are their semantic equivalents. Experimental evidence demonstrates that sensory metaphors are more memorable because they relate more to the senses and have more associative cues. These findings shed light on how senses shape language and the psychological foundations of culture more broadly.
    Keywords: Foundations Of Culture ; Metaphors ; Embodiment ; Senses
    ISSN: 0022-3514
    E-ISSN: 1939-1315
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 27 January 2015, Vol.108(2), pp.3a-4a
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2014.11.034 Byline: James Berger Author Affiliation: Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Article Note: (miscellaneous) 16-Subg
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Consumer Research, 01 October 2013, Vol.40(3), pp.580-593
    Description: How does controversy affect conversation? Five studies using both field and laboratory data address this question. Contrary to popular belief, controversial things are not necessarily more likely to be discussed. Controversy increases likelihood of discussion at low levels, but beyond a moderate level of controversy, additional controversy actually decreases likelihood of discussion. The controversy-conversation relationship is driven by two countervailing processes. Controversy increases interest (which increases likelihood of discussion) but simultaneously increases discomfort (which decreases likelihood of discussion). Contextual factors such as anonymity and whether people are talking to friends or strangers moderate the controversy-conversation relationship by impacting these component processes. Our framework sheds light on how, when, and why controversy affects whether or not things are discussed.
    Keywords: Studies ; Social Interaction ; Correlation Analysis ; Public Interest ; Disputes ; Experiment/Theoretical Treatment ; Social Trends & Culture;
    ISSN: 00935301
    E-ISSN: 15375277
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Consumer Research, 01 October 2013, Vol.40(3), pp.567-579
    Description: Consumers share word of mouth face to face, over social media, and through a host of other communication channels. But do these channels affect what people talk about and, if so, how? Laboratory experiments, as well as analysis of almost 20,000 everyday conversations, demonstrate that communicating via oral versus written communication affects the products and brands consumers discuss. Compared to oral communication, written communication leads people to mention more interesting products and brands. Further, this effect is driven by communication asynchrony and self-enhancement concerns. Written communication gives people more time to construct and refine what to say, and self-enhancement motives lead people to use this opportunity to mention more interesting things. These findings shed light on how communication channels shape interpersonal communication and the psychological drivers of word of mouth more broadly.
    Keywords: Business;
    ISSN: 00935301
    E-ISSN: 15375277
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Marketing Research, 1 April 2012, Vol.49(2), pp.192-205
    Description: Why are certain pieces of online content (e.g., advertisements, videos, news articles) more viral than others? This article takes a psychological approach to understanding diffusion. Using a unique data set of all the New York Times articles published over a three-month period, the authors examine how emotion shapes virality. The results indicate that positive content is more viral than negative content, but the relationship between emotion and social transmission is more complex than valence alone. Virality is partially driven by physiological arousal. Content that evokes high-arousal positive (awe) or negative (anger or anxiety) emotions is more viral. Content that evokes low-arousal, or deactivating, emotions (e.g., sadness) is less viral. These results hold even when the authors control for how surprising, interesting, or practically useful content is (all of which are positively linked to virality), as well as external drivers of attention (e.g., how prominently content was featured). Experimental results further demonstrate the causal impact of specific emotion on transmission and illustrate that it is driven by the level of activation induced. Taken together, these findings shed light on why people share content and how to design more effective viral marketing campaigns.
    Keywords: Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Business -- Business administration -- Corporate communications -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Applied sciences -- Technology -- Communications technology -- Home pages ; Social sciences -- Communications -- Advertising -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Applied sciences -- Research methods -- Observational research -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages
    ISSN: 00222437
    E-ISSN: 15477193
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Marketing Research, 1 October 2011, Vol.48(5), pp.869-880
    Description: Word of mouth (WOM) affects diffusion and sales, but why are certain products talked about more than others, both right after consumers first experience them and in the months that follow? This article examines psychological drivers of immediate and ongoing WOM. The authors analyze a unique data set of everyday conversations for more than 300 products and conduct both a large field experiment across various cities and a controlled laboratory experiment with real conversations. The results indicate that more interesting products get more immediate WOM but, contrary to intuition, do not receive more ongoing WOM over multiple months or overall. In contrast, products that are cued more by the environment or are more publicly visible receive more WOM both right away and over time. Additional analyses demonstrate which promotional giveaways in WOM marketing campaigns are associated with increased WOM. Overall, the findings shed light on psychological drivers of WOM and provide insight into designing more effective WOM campaigns.
    Keywords: Business -- Business administration -- Corporate communications ; Social sciences -- Communications -- Informal communication ; Business -- Business information -- Consumer research ; Education -- Educational resources -- Instructional materials ; Business -- Business administration -- Corporate communications ; Applied sciences -- Research methods -- Modeling ; Education -- Specialized education -- Global education ; Economics -- Microeconomics -- Economic costs and benefits ; Philosophy -- Applied philosophy -- Philosophy of science ; Business -- Business administration -- Corporate communications
    ISSN: 00222437
    E-ISSN: 15477193
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Physical Review B, 8/2015, Vol.92(6)
    Description: We study the patterns at which the current flow stabilizes in a finite 1D superconducting wire, for various experimentally reasonable boundary conditions, for small fixed current densities and temperatures close to T sub(c). We pay special attention to the possible existence of a stationary regime. If the contacts are superconducting, truly stationary or normal regimes do not exist, but can be approached as a limit. In the case of weak superconducting contacts, a rich phase diagram is found, with several periodic regimes that involve two phase slip centers. There may be a time lag between the phase slips at each of these centers. There is a small parameter region in which this time lag is continuously tuned by the parameters. For some of these regimes, the density of Cooper pairs does not have mirror symmetry. If the contacts are normal, the stationary regime is possible. Analysis according to the Kramer-Watts-Tobin formalism leads to qualitatively the same results as the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model.
    Keywords: Mathematical Models ; Time Lag ; Density ; Slip ; Wire ; Condensed Matter ; Boundary Conditions ; Superconductivity ; Condensed Matter Physics (General) (So) ; Physics of Metals (MD) ; Atomic Properties (Ep) ; Atomic Properties (Ed) ; Atomic Properties (EC) ; Solid-State Physics (Ah);
    ISSN: 1098-0121
    E-ISSN: 1550-235X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Physical Review B, 5/2011, Vol.83(17)
    ISSN: 1098-0121
    E-ISSN: 1550-235X
    Source: American Physical Society (APS) (via CrossRef)
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