The New England Journal of Medicine, 2007, Vol.356(17), pp.1742-1750
Background Relationships between physicians and pharmaceutical, medical device, and other medically related industries have received considerable attention in recent years. We surveyed physicians to collect information about their financial associations with industry and the factors that predict those associations. Methods We conducted a national survey of 3167 physicians in six specialties (anesthesiology, cardiology, family practice, general surgery, internal medicine, and pediatrics) in late 2003 and early 2004. The raw response rate for this probability sample was 52%, and the weighted response rate was 58%. Results Most physicians (94%) reported some type of relationship with the pharmaceutical industry, and most of these relationships involved receiving food in the workplace (83%) or receiving drug samples (78%). More than one third of the respondents (35%) received reimbursement for costs associated with professional meetings or continuing medical education, and more than one quarter (28%) received payments for consulting, giving lectures, or enrolling patients in trials. Cardiologists were more than twice as likely as family practitioners to receive payments. Family practitioners met more frequently with industry representatives than did physicians in other specialties, and physicians in solo, two-person, or group practices met more frequently with industry representatives than did physicians practicing in hospitals and clinics. Conclusions The results of this national survey indicate that relationships between physicians and industry are common and underscore the variation among such relationships according to specialty, practice type, and professional activities. In this national survey of 3167 physicians, 83% reported receiving food or beverages paid for by a company that makes drugs or other medical products, 78% drug samples, 35% reimbursement for professional meetings, and 28% payments for consulting, speaking, or enrolling patients in clinical trials. Family practitioners met most frequently with industry representatives, and cardiologists were most likely to receive payments. In this national survey of physicians, 83% reported receiving food or beverages paid for by a company that makes drugs or other medical products, 78% drug samples, 35% reimbursement for professional meetings, and 28% payments for consulting, speaking, or enrolling patients in clinical trials. In the past 20 years, physician–industry relationships have received considerable attention.1–12 In 2000, Wazana reviewed 16 studies published between 1982 and 1997 and estimated that, on average, physicians met with industry representatives four times per month and residents accepted six gifts per year from industry representatives.13 A 2001 survey showed that 92% of physicians received drug samples, 61% received meals, tickets to events, or free travel, 13% received financial or other kinds of benefits, and 12% received incentives for participation in clinical trials.14 Many of these previous studies are now somewhat dated or focused on particular specialties or geographic . . .
Anesthesiology–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Cardiology–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Data Collection–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Drug Industry–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Equipment & Supplies–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Family Practice–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Female–Statistics & Numerical Data ; General Surgery–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Gift Giving–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Humans–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Industry–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Internal Medicine–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Interprofessional Relations–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Logistic Models–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Male–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Marketing–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Multivariate Analysis–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Pediatrics–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Physicians–Statistics & Numerical Data ; United States–Statistics & Numerical Data ; United States–Us ; Acquisitions & Mergers ; Meetings ; Health Facilities ; American Medical Association ; Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America;