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  • Bouriaud, Olivier  (14)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 29 March 2016, Vol.113(13), pp.3557-62
    Description: Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality.
    Keywords: Fundiveurope ; Biodiversity ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Spatial Scale ; Β-Diversity ; Biodiversity ; Forests
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Ecology, May 2017, Vol.105(3), pp.761-774
    Description: Promoting mixed‐species forests is an important strategy for adaptation and risk reduction in the face of global change. Concurrently, a main challenge in ecology is to quantify the effects of species diversity on ecosystem functioning. In forests, the effects of individual tree species on ecosystem functions depend largely on their dimensions, which are commonly predicted using allometric equations. However, little is known about how diversity influences allometry or how to incorporate this effect into allometric equations. Ignoring the effects of interspecific interactions on allometric relationships may result in severely biased predictions. This study examined the effects of tree‐species diversity, competition and tree social status on crown‐projection area (cpa), height (h) and live‐crown length (lcl) of trees using a European‐wide data set containing 17 target species and 12 939 trees. The cpa, h and lcl were predicted as functions of stem diameter at 1·3 m, tree‐species diversity, tree height relative to the stand mean height (rh) and a competition index (CI) that accounted for stand density and interspecific differences in competitive ability based on species‐specific wood density or shade tolerance. Averaged across species, diameter had the greatest effect on cpa and lcl, followed by the competition index, while rh had the greatest effect on lcl. Tree‐species diversity had the smallest effect on cpa, h and lcl. Interspecific variability in cpa, h or lcl responses to diversity, CI, or rh was sometimes related to wood density or shade tolerance. Synthesis. This study shows the strong influence of stand structure and species composition on allometric relationships. These influences can be quantified using measures of competition, tree‐species diversity and relative tree height so that general equations can be developed for a given species to be applied to a wide range of species compositions and stand structures. This new approach will greatly improve predictions of biomass and carbon stocks in structurally and compositionally diverse forests. Tree allometry is influenced by, and influences, many forest functions. However, little is known about how allometry of a given species varies with forest structure and tree‐species composition, or whether any interspecific differences in allometric responses relate to species traits. Using a European wide data set, this study shows how stand structural characteristics and tree‐species diversity can influence tree allometry.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Biomass Partitioning ; Complementarity ; Plant Allometry ; Plant–Plant Interactions ; Stand Structure ; Tree Height
    ISSN: 0022-0477
    E-ISSN: 1365-2745
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 August 2018, Vol.422, pp.323-337
    Description: Mixed-species forests can have higher productivity, in terms of wood volume, than monospecific forests. In addition, higher tree species richness has been found to positively correlate with multiple ecosystem services and functions. Surprisingly, stem quality as one of the most important factors regarding the economic value of forests has rarely been formally studied in diverse forests. This paper aims at investigating how tree species richness influences stem quality and which factors may drive quality development in these stands. Stem quality, understood here essentially as the suitability of a particular stem for particular end-uses, is influenced by a tree's ability to capture sufficient resources for growth and is influenced by neighbouring trees, e.g. through shading and physical crown interactions. We collected data on crown size, stem form and tree health for over 12,000 trees in 209 study plots in six European regions (Finland, Germany, Poland, Romania, Italy and Spain) within naturally diverse forests to assess the impact of tree species richness on these characteristics. Results showed that quality variability between regions, stands and individual trees was high across species. At the stand level, there was a slight tendency towards lower stem quality with increasing diversity. However, individual trees of high quality were present at all diversity levels and for all target species. Tree species richness could not be confirmed as a primary influence on stem quality at the stand level. Rather, stand and individual tree properties such as structural composition, competition, tree size and crown characteristics were identified as the main factors for stem quality development, even in mixed stands. Many of the factors identified in this study can be directly or indirectly influenced by forest management strategies tailored to produce high-quality timber in mixed-species forests. Our findings suggest that diverse stands are not inferior regarding stem quality, while at the same time being able to provide various other ecosystem services
    Keywords: Timber Quality ; Biodiversity ; Tree Species Richness ; Ecosystem Services ; Fundiveurope ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Description: Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality....
    Keywords: Β-Diversity ; Biodiversity ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Fundiveurope ; Spatial Scale
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    Source: DataCite
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 2016
    Description: There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems.
    Keywords: Earth And Environmental Sciences ; Species Richness ; Soil Microbial Biomass ; Statistical Inevitability ; Current Knowledge ; Extraction Method ; Plant Diversity ; Services ; Nitrogen ; Carbon ; Challenges
    ISSN: 2041-1723
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, March 2019, Vol.56(3), pp.733-744
    Description: Forest ecosystem functioning generally benefits from higher tree species richness, but variation within richness levels is typically large. This is mostly due to the contrasting performances of communities with different compositions. Evidence‐based understanding of composition effects on forest productivity, as well as on multiple other functions will enable forest managers to focus on the selection of species that maximize functioning, rather than on diversity per se. We used a dataset of 30 ecosystem functions measured in stands with different species richness and composition in six European forest types. First, we quantified whether the compositions that maximize annual above‐ground wood production (productivity) generally also fulfil the multiple other ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). Then, we quantified the species identity effects and strength of interspecific interactions to identify the “best” and “worst” species composition for multifunctionality. Finally, we evaluated the real‐world frequency of occurrence of best and worst mixtures, using harmonized data from multiple national forest inventories. The most productive tree species combinations also tended to express relatively high multifunctionality, although we found a relatively wide range of compositions with high‐ or low‐average multifunctionality for the same level of productivity. Monocultures were distributed among the highest as well as the lowest performing compositions. The variation in functioning between compositions was generally driven by differences in the performance of the component species and, to a lesser extent, by particular interspecific interactions. Finally, we found that the most frequent species compositions in inventory data were monospecific stands and that the most common compositions showed below‐average multifunctionality and productivity. Synthesis and applications. Species identity and composition effects are essential to the development of high‐performing production systems, for instance in forestry and agriculture. They therefore deserve great attention in the analysis and design of functional biodiversity studies if the aim is to inform ecosystem management. A management focus on tree productivity does not necessarily trade‐off against other ecosystem functions; high productivity and multifunctionality can be combined with an informed selection of tree species and species combinations. Species identity and composition effects are essential to the development of high‐performing production systems, for instance in forestry and agriculture. They therefore deserve great attention in the analysis and design of functional biodiversity studies if the aim is to inform ecosystem management. A management focus on tree productivity does not necessarily trade‐off against other ecosystem functions; high productivity and multifunctionality can be combined with an informed selection of tree species and species combinations.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Multifunctionality ; Forest Management ; Forestry ; Fundiv Europe ; Overyielding ; Productivity ; Species Interactions ; Tree Species Mixtures
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Description: There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity’ and ‘selection’, we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades’ effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world’s ecosystems.
    Description: The research leading to these results received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 265171.
    Description: This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Nature Publishing Group via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11109
    Keywords: Biological Sciences ; Ecology
    Source: DSpace@Cambridge
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Description: Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality.
    Description: We thank the Hainich National Park administration as well as Felix Berthold and Carsten Beinhoff for support of this study and Gerald Kaendler and the Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut for providing access to the German National Forest Inventory data. The research leading to these results received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement 265171.
    Description: This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from the National Academy of Sciences via https://doi.org//10.1073/pnas.1517903113
    Keywords: Β-Diversity ; Biodiversity ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Fundiveurope ; Spatial Scale
    Source: DSpace@Cambridge
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  • 9
    In: Ecology Letters, November 2017, Vol.20(11), pp.1414-1426
    Description: The importance of biodiversity in supporting ecosystem functioning is generally well accepted. However, most evidence comes from small‐scale studies, and scaling‐up patterns of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (B‐EF) remains challenging, in part because the importance of environmental factors in shaping B‐EF relations is poorly understood. Using a forest research platform in which 26 ecosystem functions were measured along gradients of tree species richness in six regions across Europe, we investigated the extent and the potential drivers of context dependency of B‐EF relations. Despite considerable variation in species richness effects across the continent, we found a tendency for stronger B‐EF relations in drier climates as well as in areas with longer growing seasons and more functionally diverse tree species. The importance of water availability in driving context dependency suggests that as water limitation increases under climate change, biodiversity may become even more important to support high levels of functioning in European forests.
    Keywords: Functional Diversity ; Fundiveurope ; Growing Season Length ; Multifunctionality ; Resource Heterogeneity ; Species Richness ; Water Availability
    ISSN: 1461-023X
    E-ISSN: 1461-0248
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  • 10
    In: Ecology Letters, January 2018, Vol.21(1), pp.31-42
    Description: Humans require multiple services from ecosystems, but it is largely unknown whether trade‐offs between ecosystem functions prevent the realisation of high ecosystem multifunctionality across spatial scales. Here, we combined a comprehensive dataset (28 ecosystem functions measured on 209 forest plots) with a forest inventory dataset (105,316 plots) to extrapolate and map relationships between various ecosystem multifunctionality measures across Europe. These multifunctionality measures reflected different management objectives, related to timber production, climate regulation and biodiversity conservation/recreation. We found that trade‐offs among them were rare across Europe, at both local and continental scales. This suggests a high potential for ‘win‐win’ forest management strategies, where overall multifunctionality is maximised. However, across sites, multifunctionality was on average 45.8‐49.8% below maximum levels and not necessarily highest in protected areas. Therefore, using one of the most comprehensive assessments so far, our study suggests a high but largely unrealised potential for management to promote multifunctional forests.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Climate ; Ecosystem Multifunctionality ; Ecosystem Services ; Forest ; Fundiv Europe ; Large‐Scale ; Phylogenetic Diversity ; Tree Communities ; Upscaling
    ISSN: 1461-023X
    E-ISSN: 1461-0248
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