Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, November 2016, Vol.64(11), pp.2311-2316
To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jgs.14458/abstract Byline: Andre Hajek, Christian Brettschneider, Dagmar Luhmann, Marion Eisele, Silke Mamone, Birgitt Wiese, Siegfried Weyerer, Jochen Werle, Michael Pentzek, Angela Fuchs, Steffi G. Riedel-Heller, Tobias Luck, Horst Bickel, Dagmar Weeg, Alexander Koppara, Michael Wagner, Martin Scherer, Wolfgang Maier, Hans-Helmut Konig,, Heinz-Harald Abholz, Cadja Bachmann, Wolfgang Blank, Hendrik den Bussche, Sandra Eifflaender-Gorfer, Annette Ernst, Kathrin Heser, Frank Jessen, Hanna Kaduszkiewicz, Teresa Kaufeler, Mirjam Kohler, Carolin Lange, Diana Lubisch, Melanie Luppa, Manfred Mayer, Edelgard Mosch, Julia Olbrich, Tina Posselt, Jana Prokein, Susanne Rohr, Anna Schumacher, Janine Stein, Susanne Steinmann, Franziska Tebarth, Klaus Weckbecker, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Thomas Zimmermann Keywords: visual impairment; physical function; cognitive function; older people; longitudinal study Objectives To examine how visual impairment affects physical and cognitive function in old age. Design A longitudinal population-based prospective cohort study. Setting General practitioner offices at six study centers in Germany. They were observed every 1.5 years over four waves. Participants Individuals aged 77-101 at follow-up Wave 2 (N = 2,394). Measurements Physical and cognitive function were assessed using an adapted scale that had been previously developed, and visual impairment was rated on a Likert scale (none, mild, severe or profound). Results Adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidity, linear fixed-effects regression showed that the onset of severe visual impairment was associated with a decline in physical function score in the total sample ([beta] = -0.15, P = .01) and in women ([beta] = -.15, P = .03). Moreover, the onset of severe visual impairment was associated with decline in cognitive function score in the total sample ([beta] = -0.38, P 〈 .001) and in women ([beta] = -0.38, P 〈 .001) and men ([beta] = -0.37, P = .001). Conclusion Visual impairment affects physical and cognitive function in old age. Interventional strategies to postpone visual impairment may contribute to maintaining physical and cognitive function. Article Note: These authors contributed equally to this work. See Appendix 1. CAPTION(S): Table S1. Mean level of changes in visual impairment, physical and cognitive function (all treated as continuous variables) from FU Wave 2 to FU Wave 5. Table S2. Pairwise correlations in differences (from FU Wave 2 to FU Wave 5). Table S3. Predictors of physical function. Results of fixed effects regressions for individuals with complete data (FU Waves 2-5). Table S4. Predictors of cognitive function. Results of fixed effects regressions for individuals with complete data (FU Waves 2-5).
Visual Impairment ; Physical Function ; Cognitive Function ; Older People ; Longitudinal Study