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  • Brunner, Ivano  (10)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 06/2011, Vol.174(3), pp.408-419
    ISSN: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science
    E-ISSN: 14368730
    E-ISSN: 15222624
    Source: Wiley (via CrossRef)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2007, Vol.298(1), pp.69-79
    Description: It is generally believed that high soil solution Al 3+ in acidic soils with low base saturation (BS), negatively influences the properties of fine roots. Fine roots from European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) trees growing in highly acidic soils with very low BS and potentially high Al 3+ concentration in the soil solution were analysed and the dependency of fine root properties on soil BS was measured. The fine roots were sampled down to 1 m depth at seven forest sites located on the Swiss Plateau. These sites varied in their BS from 1.4 to 11.4% in the mineral layers. We evaluated relationships between the BS of these mineral layers and fine root properties, such as ratio between bio- and necromass (live/dead ratio), specific root length (SRL), root tip abundance (RTA), root branching abundance (RBA), O 2 -consumption, and the Ca/Al molar ratio in the fine root tissue. The fine root properties were compared not only with the BS of the soil, but also with the Ca/Al molar ratio in the fine root tissues. Significant relations of fine root properties occurred when the soils of the seven sites were grouped into two BS groups (〈5 and 5–10%). The live/dead ratio, the RTA, the RBA, the O 2 -consumption, and Ca/Al molar ratio were lower in the group of BS 〈5% than in the group 5–10%. Decreases in the morphological properties and in the O 2 -consumption were related to decrease in the Ca/Al molar ratio of the fine root tissues. There is evidence that the fine root properties are negatively influenced, nevertheless, fine root systems of mature European beech in their natural ecological environment seem to be able to compensate adverse effects of low BS.
    Keywords: Aluminium toxicity ; Ca/Al molar ratio ; Fagus sylvatica ; Fine root morphology
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2003, Vol.175(1), pp.413-423
    Description: In a field experiment, lasting two years, an intensive monitoring of the nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of Norway spruce fine roots was used to investigate the question of whether the NRA is suitable as an indicator for nitrogen availability in the soil. The treatments were a liquid complete fertilisation containing 70–100 kg N (64% as nitrate), simulating a high N input to the soil, a non-treated control, and a water treatment as an additional control. Another treatment was the application of wood ash, which recycled mainly basic cations back into the forest soil (Ca, Mg, K). This treatment caused a mineralisation pulse leading to a shift in nitrate concentration in the soil solution. The NRA of the fine roots was increased by the liquid fertilisation (averages 34% compared to control), but also by the water treatment (averages 28% more than control) and most by the wood ash treatment (averages 82% more than control). Nitrate concentrations in the soil solution were enhanced during the irrigation with the fertiliser. The pH was distinctly elevated in the soil solution by the ash, but also by the liquid fertiliser treatment. The soil solution applied to the water treated plots was not monitored, but results from an investigation of soil extracts revealed an elevated pH in the soil of the water treated plots as well. The pH of the soil solution was significantly correlated with the NRA in the fine roots, while a correlation between the nitrate concentration in the soil solution and the NRA was not significant. When taking the spatial heterogeneity of the soil nitrate into account, a correlation between the nitrate concentration of the soil extract and the root NRA was found. Although only a weak correlation between the NRA and the actual soil nitrate was observed, the NRA is assumed to reflect the nitrate conditions in the soil, possibly only in a time scale of months. As shown with the wood ash and water treatments, an elevated NRA can also be caused from other environmental parameters which can change the nitrate availability in the soil and uptake properties of the roots. The conclusion is that the NRA of fine roots as a marker for nitrate concentrations in the soil is not suitable on a regional and short-term scale in the field if other environmental parameters (e.g. the soil pH) are subjected to pronounced changes.
    Keywords: Fine Roots ; Picea Abies ; Nitrate Reductase Activity ; Fertilisation ; Wood Ash ; Soil Solution ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, March, 1999, Vol.214(1), p.103
    Description: Byline: Alexander Heim (1), Jorg Luster (1), Ivano Brunner (1), Beat Frey (1), Emmanuel Frossard (2) Keywords: aluminium; binding forms; element compartmentation; Picea abies; resistance; root exudates Abstract: In order to investigate if Al resistance in Norway spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) can be attributed to similar exclusion mechanisms as they occur in several crop plants, three-year-old Norway spruce plants were treated for one week in hydroculture with either 500 uM AlCl.sub.3 or CaCl.sub.2 solutions at pH 4. Sequential root extraction with 1 M N[H.sub.4]Cl and 0.01 M HCl and EDX microanalysis revealed that Al and Ca in cell walls and on the surface participated in exchange processes. About half of the Al extracted by the sequential extraction was not exchangeable by 1 M N[H.sub.4]Cl. Phenolics and phosphate present in the root extracts are possible ligands for Al adsorbed to or precipitated at the root in a non-exchangeable form. In both treatments, C release during the first period of 2 d was much higher than during the remaining time of the experiment. Al treated plants released less total C, carbohydrates and phenolics than did Ca treated plants. Acetate was the only organic acid anion that could be detected in some samples of both treatments. Free amino acids were present at micromolar concentrations but as hydrolysis did not increase their yield, there was no evidence of peptide release. One to two thirds of the released C were large enough not to pass a 1 kDa ultrafilter. The results suggest that exudation of soluble organic complexors is not a major Al tolerance mechanism in Norway spruce, although complexation of Al by phenolic substances released by the root could be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. Aluminium tolerance could rather be attributed to immobilization in the root apoplast, where strong binding sites are available or precipitation may occur. Author Affiliation: (1) Snow and Landscape Research, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, CH-8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland (2) Institute of Plant Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Research Station Eschikon, CH-8315, Lindau, Switzerland Article History: Registration Date: 14/10/2004
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, May-June, 2003, Vol.67(3), p.895(4)
    Description: The usual way to evaluate Al toxicity in forest ecosystems is to consider the concentration of A[l.sup.3+] in soil solution. The objective of this paper is to show that Al may affect tree seedlings even under conditions of very low bulk-soil solution concentrations of Al. Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. seedlings, with or without ectomycorrhizal inoculation [Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull.: St. Amans) Quel.], were grown in perlite substrate with addition of 0, 0.1, and 0.5 mM Al. The perlite buffered the pH at values 〉 5 and no soluble Al was detected in the system. However, plant biomass was significantly reduced when 0.5 mM Al was added without fungal inoculation, and Al uptake was 2 to 3 times higher than in the control treatment. Fungal inoculation compensated the growth reduction, but did not reduce Al uptake. These results indicate that spruce seedlings are able to mobilize and take up Al from solid phases.
    Keywords: Spruces -- Environmental Aspects ; Aluminum (Metal) -- Environmental Aspects ; Soil Pollution -- Environmental Aspects ; Plant-soil Relationships
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1999, Vol.216(1), pp.103-116
    Description: In order to investigate if Al resistance in Norway spruce ( Picea abies [L.] Karst.) can be attributed to similar exclusion mechanisms as they occur in several crop plants, three-year-old Norway spruce plants were treated for one week in hydroculture with either 500 μ M AlCl 3 or CaCl 2 solutions at pH 4. Sequential root extraction with 1 M NH 4 Cl and 0.01 M HCl and EDX microanalysis revealed that Al and Ca in cell walls and on the surface participated in exchange processes. About half of the Al extracted by the sequential extraction was not exchangeable by 1 M NH 4 Cl. Phenolics and phosphate present in the root extracts are possible ligands for Al adsorbed to or precipitated at the root in a non-exchangeable form. In both treatments, C release during the first period of 2 d was much higher than during the remaining time of the experiment. Al treated plants released less total C, carbohydrates and phenolics than did Ca treated plants. Acetate was the only organic acid anion that could be detected in some samples of both treatments. Free amino acids were present at micromolar concentrations but as hydrolysis did not increase their yield, there was no evidence of peptide release. One to two thirds of the released C were large enough not to pass a 1 kDa ultrafilter. The results suggest that exudation of soluble organic complexors is not a major Al tolerance mechanism in Norway spruce, although complexation of Al by phenolic substances released by the root could be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. Aluminium tolerance could rather be attributed to immobilization in the root apoplast, where strong binding sites are available or precipitation may occur.
    Keywords: aluminium ; binding forms ; element compartmentation ; Picea abies ; resistance ; root exudates
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 7
    In: Tree Physiology, 2007, Vol. 27(1), pp.155-160
    Description: 2 A common method to determine the vitality of fine root tissue is the measurement of respiratory activity with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). The colorless TTC is reduced to the red-colored triphenyl formazan (TF) as a result of the dehydrogenase activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, measurements with woody fine roots of adult Norway spruce and European beech trees showed that dead control roots had a high potential to react with TTC. High reactivity was found in boiled fine roots and the bark of coarse roots, but not in the boiled wood of coarse roots. By sequential extraction of dried and ground adult Norway spruce fine roots, reactivity with TTC was reduced by about 75% (water extraction), 93% (water/methanol extraction) and 94% (water/acetone extraction). The water extract reacted with TTC in the same way as polyphenols such as lignin, catechin and epicatechin. Boiling did not affect the extent to which fine roots of adult trees reduced TTC, whereas it greatly reduced TTC reduction by seedling roots. Application of the TTC test to roots of spruce seedlings subjected to increasing drought showed a progressive decrease in TTC reduction. The decrease in TTC reduction was paralleled by a reduction in O 2 consumption, thus supporting the conclusion that for roots with a low polyphenol content the TTC test provides a valid assessment of tissue vitality. Our results suggest, however, that the TTC test should not be applied to the fine roots of adult trees because of their high content of polyphenolic compounds whose reaction with TTC masks changes in TTC reduction due to changes in the respiratory capacity of the tissue.
    Keywords: Fagus Sylvatica ; Fine Root Vitality ; Picea Abies ; Respiration ; Tannins ; Tetrazolium Chloride
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2003, Vol.67(3), p.895
    ISSN: Soil Science Society of America Journal
    E-ISSN: 1435-0661
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2011, Vol.10(3), p.867
    Description: Soils are the product of a complex suite of chemical, biological, and physical processes. In spite of the importance of soils for society and for sustaining life on earth, our knowledge of soil formation rates and of the influence of biological activity on mineral weathering and geochemical cycles is still limited. In this paper we provide a description of the Damma Glacier Critical Zone Observatory and present a first synthesis of our multidisciplinary studies of the 150-yr soil chronosequence. The aim of our research was to improve our understanding of ecosystem development on a barren substrate and the early evolution of soils and to evaluate the influence of biological activity on weathering rates. Soil pH, cation exchange capacity, biomass, bacterial and fungal populations, and soil organic matter show clear gradients related to soil age, in spite of the extreme heterogeneity of the ecosystem. The bulk mineralogy and inorganic geochemistry of the soils, in contrast, are independent of soil age and only in older soils (〉100 yr) is incipient weathering observed, mainly as a decreasing content in albite and biotite by coincidental formation of secondary chlorites in the clay fraction. Further, we document the rapid evolution of microbial and plant communities along the chronosequence.
    Keywords: Geochemistry Of Rocks, Soils, And Sediments ; Soils ; Alps ; Alteration ; Biogenic Processes ; Braided Streams ; Cation Exchange Capacity ; Cenozoic ; Central Europe ; Central Swiss Alps ; Chronosequences ; Critical Zone ; Damma Glacier ; Drainage ; Drainage Basins ; Europe ; Holocene ; Mineral Composition ; Monitoring ; Multivariate Analysis ; Neoglacial ; Observatories ; Organic Compounds ; Pedogenesis ; Ph ; Physicochemical Properties ; Principal Components Analysis ; Quaternary ; Soils ; Spectra ; Statistical Analysis ; Streams ; Swiss Alps ; Switzerland ; Unsaturated Zone ; Uri Switzerland ; Weathering ; Weathering Rates ; X-Ray Fluorescence Spectra;
    ISSN: Vadose Zone Journal
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2001, Vol.164(5), pp.519-526
    Description: Seedlings of Norway spruce ( [L.] Karst.), which had been grown under sterile conditions for three months, were treated for one week in a hydroculture system with either 500 μM AlCl or 750 μM CaCl solutions at pH 4. Organic acids were determined in hot‐water extracts of ground root tissue. Oxalate (3.3—6.6 μmol (g root dry weight)) was most abundant. Malate, citrate, formate, acetate, and lactate concentrations ranged between 1—2 μmol (g root dry weight). Organic substances and phosphate found in the treatment solutions at the end of the experimental period were considered to be root exudates. Total root exudation within a 2‐day period ranged from 20—40 μmol C (g root weight). In root exudates, organic acids, and total carbohydrates, total amino acids, and total phenolic substances were quantified. Citrate and malate, although present in hot‐water extracts of root tissue, were not detected in root exudates. Phosphate was released from Ca‐treated plants. In Al treatments, there was indication of Al phosphate precipitation at the root surface. Oxalate and phenolics present in the exudates of Norway spruce seedlings are ligands that can form stable complexes with Al. However, concentrations of these substances in the treatment solutions were at micromolar levels. Their importance for the protection of the sensitive root apex under natural conditions is discussed. Wurzelausscheidungen, organische Säuren und Elementverteilung in Wurzeln aluminiumbehandelter Fichtensämlinge in Hydrokultur Fichtensämlinge ( [L.] Karst.), die drei Monate lang unter sterilen Bedingungen angezogen worden waren, wurden eine Woche lang in einem Hydrokultursystem mit Lösungen von 500 μM AlCl oder 750 μM CaCl bei pH 4 behandelt. In Heißwasserextrakten gemahlener Wurzeln wurden organische Säuren gemessen. Dabei war Oxalat (3.3—6.6 μmol (g Wurzeltrockengewicht)) am häufigsten, während die Konzentrationen an Malat, Citrat, Formiat, Acetat und Lactat zwischen 1—2 μmol (g Wurzeltrockengewicht) lagen. Organische Substanzen und Phosphat, welche am Ende des Versuchsabschnitts in den Behandlungslösungen gefunden wurden, wurden als Wurzelausscheidungen aufgefasst. Die gesamte Wurzelexsudation während zweier Tage betrug 20—40 μmol C (g Wurzeltrockengewicht). In den Wurzelexsudaten wurden organische Säuren, Gesamtkohlenhydrate, Gesamtaminosäuren und Gesamtphenole bestimmt. Citrat und Malat konnten trotz ihres Vorkommens in Heißwasserextrakten des Wurzelmaterials nicht in den Exsudaten nachgewiesen werden. Die Ca‐behandelten Pflanzen schieden Phosphat aus. In den Al‐Behandlungen gab es dagegen Hinweise auf Aluminiumphosphat‐Ausfällungen an der Wurzeloberfläche. Oxalat und phenolische Substanzen in den Exsudaten der Fichtensämlinge sind Liganden, welche stabile Komplexe mit Al bilden können. Die Konzentrationen dieser Liganden lagen jedoch nur im mikromolaren Bereich. Ihre Bedeutung für den Schutz der empfindlichen Wurzelspitzen unter natürlichen Bedingungen wird diskutiert.
    Keywords: Al Tolerance ; Hydroculture ; Organic Acids ; Phosphate ; Picea Abies
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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