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  • Burauel, Peter  (20)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Jan, 2013, Vol.115, p.168(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2012.08.008 Byline: Bastian Niedree, Harry Vereecken, Peter Burauel Abstract: In a soil microcosm experiment, the influence of low-level.sup.137Cs and.sup.90Sr contamination on the degradation of.sup.14C-ring-labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied. Two differently treated soils (one native soil and one soil sterilized and reinoculated with a biotic soil aliquot) were artificially contaminated with various concentrations of.sup.137Cs and.sup.90Sr as nitrate salts. The cumulative doses increased up to 4 Gy for 30 days of incubation in soil microcosms. Changes in microbial community structure were observed with help of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A radiation-induced impact appeared only in the microcosms treated with 30 times the maximum contamination appearing in the exclusion zone around reactor 4 in Chernobyl. In contrast to the less contaminated soils, the mineralization of 2,4-D was delayed for 4 days before it recovered. Slight shifts in the microbial communities could be traced to radiation effects. However, other parameters had a major impact on mineralization and community structure. Thus the sterilization and reinoculation and, of course, application of the 2,4-D were predominantly reflected in the.sup.14CO.sub.2 emissions and the DGGE gel patterns. Author Affiliation: Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, 52425 Julich, Germany Article History: Received 3 April 2012; Revised 7 August 2012; Accepted 12 August 2012
    Keywords: Nuclear Radiation ; Soil Microbiology
    ISSN: 0265-931X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, April 2017, Vol.172, pp.310-315
    Description: The soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different crops was determined with respect to the present-day amendment practice of using digestate from biogas fermenters. The studies were performed using large lysimeters filled with undisturbed luvisol monoliths. In contrast to the conservative tracer, Br , neither of the studied radionuclides showed a significant vertical translocation nor effect of the applied digestate amendment compared to a non-amended control was found. Furthermore, no significant plant uptake was measured for both nuclides in wheat or oat as indicated by the low transfer factors between soil-shoot for Cs-137 (TF 0.001–0.010) and for Sr-90 (0.10–0.51). The transfer into nutritionally relevant plant parts was even lower with transfer factors for soil-grain for Cs-137 (TF 0.000–0.001) and for Sr-90 (0.01–0.06). Hence, the amendment with biogas digestate is unfortunately not an option to further reduce plant uptake of these radionuclides in agricultural crops, but it does not increase plant uptake either.
    Keywords: Radioactive Contaminants ; Undisturbed Soil Monolith ; Agro-Ecosystem ; Oat ; Wheat ; Transfer Factor ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 July 2016, Vol.559, pp.63-73
    Description: Pesticide pollution caused by point or diffuse sources may lead to the contamination of ground and surface water. Biobed or biofilter systems, which are filled with a variety of organic materials (soil, peat and straw), are commonly used on farm to treat pesticide remnants. The objective of this study was to assess the sorption–desorption potential of three pesticides with contrasting physico-chemical properties (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) on novel biofilter materials based on bioenergy residues (mixtures of soil with digestate and/or biochar) in laboratory batch equilibrium experiments. The results show that the biomixtures of digestate and biochar with soil increased pesticides sorption potential and the / values were lower than the / values indicating that the desorption was hysteretic for all pesticides on these materials. The adsorption and desorption of all the chemicals conformed to linear and Freundlich isotherms. Higher values of distribution [K (〉 78 L kg )] and Freundlich sorption coefficient [ (〉 900 μg L kg )] were observed for all pesticides for the digestate and biochar based mixtures compared with the blank soil, which was attributed to the lower organic carbon content of the latter. However, unlike for sorption there was no statistically significant difference between the biochar and the digestate mixtures for pesticides desorption ( 〉 0.05; -test). Specific UV-absorbances at 254 nm (SUVA ) indicated the aromatic character of digestate (5 and 30%) and biochar (5%) biomixture, which showed the highest organic-carbon-partition coefficients (K ) and/or K values amongst all biomixtures for all pesticides. Therefore, these biomixtures were found to be the most promising substrates amongst the tested ones for a novel biobed setup and can be used as effective and alternative adsorbents for removing pesticides from percolating water in biofilters.
    Keywords: Pesticide ; Biobed ; Biochar ; Digestate ; Sorption ; Desorption ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 February 2016, Vol.544, pp.192-202
    Description: Biopurification systems, such as biofilters, are biotechnological tools to prevent point sources of pesticide pollution stemming from on-farm operations. For the purification processes pesticide sorption and mineralization and/or dissipation are essential and both largely depend on the type of filling materials and the pesticide in use. In this paper the mineralization and dissipation of three contrasting C-labeled pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) were investigated in laboratory incubation experiments using sandy soil, biochar produced from Pine woodchips, and/or digestate obtained from anaerobic digestion process using maize silage, chicken manure, beef and pig urine as feedstock. The results indicate that the addition of digestate increased pesticide mineralization, whereby the mineralization was not proportional to the digestate loads in the mixture, indicating a saturation effect in the turnover rate of pesticides. This effect was in correlation with the amount of water extractable DOC, obtained from the digestate based mixtures. Mixing biochar into the soil generally reduced total mineralization and led to larger sorption/sequestration of the pesticides, resulting in faster decrease of the extractable fraction. Also the addition of biochar to the soil/digestate mixtures reduced mineralization compared to the digestate alone mixture but mineralization rates were still higher as for the biochar/soil alone. In consequence, the addition of biochar to the soil generally decreased pesticide dissipation times and larger amounts of biochar led to high amounts of non-extractable residues of pesticide in the substrates. Among the mixtures tested, a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) gave optimal results with respect to mineralization and simultaneous sorption for all three pesticides.
    Keywords: Biobed ; Biomixture ; Biochar ; Digestate ; Mineralization ; Dissipation ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, July, 2012, Vol.109, p.29(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.12.018 Byline: Bastian Niedree, Harry Vereecken, Peter Burauel Abstract: After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether.sup.137Cs and.sup.90Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 [degrees]C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with.sup.137Cs and.sup.90Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. Author Affiliation: Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen Str., 52425 Julich, Germany Article History: Received 26 July 2011; Revised 1 December 2011; Accepted 19 December 2011
    Keywords: Nuclear Radiation -- Analysis ; Soil Pollution -- Analysis ; Nuclear Energy -- Analysis ; Nuclear Facilities -- Analysis ; Nuclear Power Plants -- Analysis ; Wheat -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0265-931X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, April, 2013, Vol.118, p.21(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2012.11.007 Byline: Bastian Niedree, Anne E. Berns, Harry Vereecken, Peter Burauel Abstract: .sup.137Cs and.sup.90Sr are the main radionuclides responsible for contamination of agricultural soils due to core melts in nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. The present study focused on effects of Chernobyl-like contaminations on the bacterial and fungal community structure, the fungal biomass and the formation of soil organic matter in native and in sterilized and reinoculated soils. 2% wheat straw [m/m] was applied to a typical agricultural soil, artificially contaminated with.sup.137Cs and.sup.90Sr, and it was then incubated in microcosms for three months at 20 [degrees]C and 50% of the water-holding capacity. The development of the microbial communities was monitored with 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The quantification of the ergosterol content was used as a proxy for changes in the fungal biomass. Changes in the soil organic matter were determined using the.sup.13C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnet resonance technique (.sup.13C-CP/MAS NMR). Slight but significant population shifts in the DGGE gel patterns could be related to the applied radionuclides. However, radiation-induced impacts could not be seen in either the chemical composition of the soil organic matter or in the development of the fungal biomass. Impacts caused by sterilization and reinoculation prevailed in the microcosms of the present study. Contaminations with.sup.137Cs or.sup.90Sr up to 50-fold that of the hotspots occurring in Chernobyl led to minor changes in soil microbial functions suggesting a strong resilience of natural soils with respect to radioactive contamination. Author Affiliation: Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen Str., 52425 Julich, Germany Article History: Received 26 March 2012; Revised 19 October 2012; Accepted 7 November 2012
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Soil Microbiology ; Nuclear Power Plants ; Plant Lipids ; Phytosterols ; Soil Carbon ; Radiation (Physics)
    ISSN: 0265-931X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, January 2013, Vol.115, pp.168-174
    Description: In a soil microcosm experiment, the influence of low-level Cs and Sr contamination on the degradation of C-ring-labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied. Two differently treated soils (one native soil and one soil sterilized and reinoculated with a biotic soil aliquot) were artificially contaminated with various concentrations of Cs and Sr as nitrate salts. The cumulative doses increased up to 4 Gy for 30 days of incubation in soil microcosms. Changes in microbial community structure were observed with help of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A radiation-induced impact appeared only in the microcosms treated with 30 times the maximum contamination appearing in the exclusion zone around reactor 4 in Chernobyl. In contrast to the less contaminated soils, the mineralization of 2,4-D was delayed for 4 days before it recovered. Slight shifts in the microbial communities could be traced to radiation effects. However, other parameters had a major impact on mineralization and community structure. Thus the sterilization and reinoculation and, of course, application of the 2,4-D were predominantly reflected in the CO emissions and the DGGE gel patterns. ► We observed the impact of contamination with Cs-137 and Sr-90 on soil functions. ► The contamination went up to 30-fold of that in the 30 km Chernobyl zone. ► The radioactive contamination inhibited the 2,4-D mineralization temporary. ► The bacterial and fungal community structure was also affected.
    Keywords: Mineralization ; 2,4-D, Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid ; 137cs, 90sr, 14c ; Chernobyl ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0265-931X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1700
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, April 2013, Vol.118, pp.21-29
    Description: Cs and Sr are the main radionuclides responsible for contamination of agricultural soils due to core melts in nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. The present study focused on effects of Chernobyl-like contaminations on the bacterial and fungal community structure, the fungal biomass and the formation of soil organic matter in native and in sterilized and reinoculated soils. 2% wheat straw [m/m] was applied to a typical agricultural soil, artificially contaminated with Cs and Sr, and it was then incubated in microcosms for three months at 20 °C and 50% of the water-holding capacity. The development of the microbial communities was monitored with 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The quantification of the ergosterol content was used as a proxy for changes in the fungal biomass. Changes in the soil organic matter were determined using the C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnet resonance technique ( C-CP/MAS NMR). Slight but significant population shifts in the DGGE gel patterns could be related to the applied radionuclides. However, radiation-induced impacts could not be seen in either the chemical composition of the soil organic matter or in the development of the fungal biomass. Impacts caused by sterilization and reinoculation prevailed in the microcosms of the present study. Contaminations with Cs or Sr up to 50-fold that of the hotspots occurring in Chernobyl led to minor changes in soil microbial functions suggesting a strong resilience of natural soils with respect to radioactive contamination. ► We observed the effects of Cs-137 and Sr-90 on microbial soil functions. ► The microbial community shifted slightly. ► The ergosterol content was not affected. ► The chemical composition of soil organic matter was also not affected. ► Effects caused by sterilization prevailed.
    Keywords: Mineralization ; Wheat Straw ; Cs-137 ; Sr-90 ; C-14 ; Chernobyl ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0265-931X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1700
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, July 2012, Vol.109, pp.29-35
    Description: After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether Cs and Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with Cs and Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. ► We observed the impact of contamination with Cs-137 and Sr-90 on soil functions. ► Microbial community was altered slightly. ► Mineralization of wheat straw was not affected. ► Microbes growing on applied straw compete for nutrients with soil microbes.
    Keywords: Mineralization ; Wheat Straw ; Cs-137 ; Sr-90 ; C-14 ; Chernobyl ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0265-931X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1700
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Biology and Fertility of Soils, 2016, Vol.52(2), pp.151-164
    Description: The addition of biochar or digestate as organic amendments to soils is currently controversially discussed with regard to its positive and negative effects on C mineralization. Organic amendments are generally applied to agricultural fields to improve soil quality and crop yield. In this study, we present results from short-term respiration experiments (90 days), where two different biochars (produced at 400 and 800 °C) as well as digestate from biogas production were added in different combinations to two soils (loamy sand and silt loam). Additionally, both amendments were mixed together into the soil to study interactions between biochar and digestate effects and investigate the interactions of both amendments with clay minerals resulting in a total of 13 mixtures (plus control soils) per soil type. The results indicate that the rate of CO 2 evolution was not proportional to the amount of C added to the systems indicating a saturation effect in the C degradation mechanism. More than 40 % of the digestate C was released as CO 2 and only 3 % for the biochar soil mixture; the recalcitrant nature of biochar and its suitability for short-term C stabilization in soils (incubation period of 90 days) were shown. Surprisingly, a much lower CO 2 release (up to 11-fold) was observed in soil/digestate/biochar compared to soil/digestate mixtures without biochar. This effect was observed even when only 1 % ( w / w ) biochar was added to the digestate/soil mixtures, indicating that the biochar changed the physicochemical properties of the system. Additional dissolved organic C (DOC) sorption experiments revealed that large quantities of DOC can be sorbed by the biochar reducing the microbial accessible DOC in the liquid phase and as a consequence also the CO 2 production.
    Keywords: Biochar ; Digestate ; C degradation ; DOC sorption ; Microbial respiration
    ISSN: 0178-2762
    E-ISSN: 1432-0789
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