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  • Gruen, Russell L.  (10)
  • Chau, Marisa  (10)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960), April 2011, Vol.129(4), pp.435-44
    Description: To examine how mydriasis and the medical qualifications of photographers who take retinal photographs influence the accuracy of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Our meta-analysis included studies that measured the sensitivity and specificity of tests designed to detect any DR, sight-threatening DR, or macular edema. Using random-effects logistic regression, we examined the effect of variations in mydriatic status and in medical qualifications of photographers on sensitivity and specificity. Only the category of "any DR" had sufficient consistency in definition, number of studies (n = 20), and number of assessments (n = 40) for meta-analysis. Variations in mydriatic status did not significantly influence sensitivity (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-1.41; P = .61) or specificity (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.57-1.54; P = .80). Variations in medical qualifications of photographers did not significantly influence sensitivity (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.31-5.12; P = .75). Specificity of detection of any DR was significantly higher for screening methods that use a photographer with specialist medical or eye qualifications (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.78-8.37; P = .001). Outreach screening is an effective alternative to on-site specialist examination. It has potential to increase screening coverage of high-risk patients with DR in remote and resource-poor settings without the risk of missing DR and the opportunity to prevent vision loss. Our analysis was confined to the presence or absence of DR. Future studies should use consistent DR classification schemes to facilitate further analysis.
    Keywords: Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological ; Photography ; Diabetic Retinopathy -- Diagnosis
    ISSN: 00039950
    E-ISSN: 1538-3601
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 2013, Vol.75(4), pp.642-656
    Description: BACKGROUND: Patients with blunt head injury are at high risk of venous thromboembolism. However, pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis (PTP) may cause progression of intracranial hemorrhage, and clinicians must often weigh up the risks and benefits. This review aimed to determine whether adding PTP to mechanical prophylaxis confers net benefit or harm and the optimal timing, dose, and agent for PTP in patients with blunt head injury. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and www.clinicaltrials.gov on April 24, 2013, to identify controlled studies and ongoing trials that assessed the efficacy or safety of thromboprophylaxis interventions in the early management of head-injured patients. Studies were classified based on types of interventions and comparisons, and the quality of included studies was assessed using Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. We intended to undertake a meta-analysis if studies were sufficiently similar. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including four randomized controlled trials. At least two randomized controlled trials were at high risk of bias owing to inadequate randomization and concealment of allocation, and observational studies were potentially confounded by substantial differences between comparison groups. Heterogeneity of included studies precluded meta-analysis. Results were mixed, with some studies supporting and others refuting addition of PTP to mechanical interventions. Little evidence was available about dose or choice of agent. The safety and efficacy of early PTP in patients without early progression of hemorrhage is unclear. CONCLUSION: There is currently insufficient evidence to guide thromboprophylaxis in patients with blunt head injury. Standardized definitions and outcome measurements would facilitate comparison of outcomes across future studies. Studies in mixed populations should report head-injured specific subgroup data. Future randomized controlled trials should investigate the efficacy and safety of early pharmacologic prophylaxis in addition to mechanical intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review, level IV.
    Keywords: Anticoagulants–Adverse Effects ; Head Injuries, Closed–Therapeutic Use ; Humans–Complications ; Treatment Outcome–Drug Therapy ; Venous Thromboembolism–Etiology ; Venous Thromboembolism–Prevention & Control ; Abridged ; Anticoagulants;
    ISSN: 2163-0755
    E-ISSN: 21630763
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 22 November 2017, Vol.11, pp.CD008929
    Description: Skeletal muscle spasticity is a major physical complication resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can lead to muscle contracture, joint stiffness, reduced range of movement, broken skin and pain. Treatments for spasticity include a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, often used in combination. Management of spasticity following TBI varies from other clinical populations because of the added complexity of behavioural and cognitive issues associated with TBI. To assess the effects of interventions for managing skeletal muscle spasticity in people with TBI. In June 2017, we searched key databases including the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and others, in addition to clinical trials registries and the reference lists of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cross-over RCTs evaluating any intervention for the management of spasticity in TBI. Only studies where at least 50% of participants had a TBI (or for whom separate data for participants with TBI were available) were included. The primary outcomes were spasticity and adverse effects. Secondary outcome measures were classified according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health including body functions (sensory, pain, neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions) and activities and participation (general tasks and demands; mobility; self-care; domestic life; major life areas; community, social and civic life). We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Data were synthesised narratively; meta-analysis was precluded due to the paucity and heterogeneity of data. We included nine studies in this review which involved 134 participants with TBI. Only five studies reported between-group differences, yielding outcome data for 105 participants with TBI. These five studies assessed the effects of a range of pharmacological (baclofen, botulinum toxin A) and non-pharmacological (casting, physiotherapy, splints, tilt table standing and electrical stimulation) interventions, often in combination. The studies which tested the effect of baclofen and tizanidine did not report their results adequately. Where outcome data were available, spasticity and adverse events were reported, in addition to some secondary outcome measures.Of the five studies with results, three were funded by governments, charities or health services and two were funded by a pharmaceutical or medical technology company. The four studies without useable results were funded by pharmaceutical or medical technology companies.It was difficult to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of these interventions due to poor reporting, small study size and the fact that participants with TBI were usually only a proportion of the overall total. Meta-analysis was not feasible due to the paucity of data and heterogeneity of interventions and comparator groups. Some studies concluded that the intervention they tested had beneficial effects on spasticity, and others found no difference between certain treatments. The most common adverse event was minor skin damage in people who received casting. We believe it would be misleading to provide any further description of study results given the quality of the evidence was very low for all outcomes. The very low quality and limited amount of evidence about the management of spasticity in people with TBI means that we are uncertain about the effectiveness or harms of these interventions. Well-designed and adequately powered studies using functional outcome measures to test the interventions used in clinical practice are needed.
    Keywords: Brain Injuries, Traumatic -- Complications ; Muscle Spasticity -- Therapy
    ISSN: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
    E-ISSN: 1469-493X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Implementation Science, Dec 5, 2018, Vol.13(1)
    Description: Background Evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the emergency department (ED) are now widely available, and yet, clinical practice remains inconsistent with the guidelines. The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) intervention was developed to increase the uptake of guideline recommendations and improve the management of minor head injury in Australian emergency departments (EDs). However, the adoption of this type of intervention typically entails an upfront investment that may or may not be fully offset by improvements in clinical practice, health outcomes and/or reductions in health service utilisation. The present study estimates the cost and cost-effectiveness of the NET intervention, as compared to the passive dissemination of the guideline, to evaluate whether any improvements in clinical practice or health outcomes due to the NET intervention can be obtained at an acceptable cost. Methods and findings Study setting: The NET cluster randomised controlled trial [ACTRN12612001286831]. Study sample: Seventeen EDs were randomised to the control condition and 14 to the intervention. One thousand nine hundred forty-three patients were included in the analysis of clinical practice outcomes (NET sample). A total of 343 patients from 14 control and 10 intervention EDs participated in follow-up interviews and were included in the analysis of patient-reported health outcomes (NET-Plus sample). Outcome measures: Appropriate post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) screening in the ED (primary outcome). Secondary clinical practice outcomes: provision of written information on discharge (INFO) and safe discharge (defined as CT scan appropriately provided plus PTA plus INFO). Secondary patient-reported, post-discharge health outcomes: anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), post-concussive symptoms (Rivermead), and preference-based health-related quality of life (SF6D). Methods: Trial-based economic evaluations from a health sector perspective, with time horizons set to coincide with the final follow-up for the NET sample (2 months post-intervention) and to 1-month post-discharge for the NET-Plus sample. Results: Intervention and control groups were not significantly different in health service utilisation received in the ED/inpatient ward following the initial mTBI presentation (adjusted mean difference $23.86 per patient; 95%CI - $106, $153; p = 0.719) or over the longer follow-up in the NET-plus sample (adjusted mean difference $341.78 per patient; 95%CI - $58, $742; p = 0.094). Savings from lower health service utilisation are therefore unlikely to offset the significantly higher upfront cost of the intervention (mean difference $138.20 per patient; 95%CI $135, $141; p 0.000). Estimates of the net effect of the intervention on total cost (intervention cost net of health service utilisation) suggest that the intervention entails significantly higher costs than the control condition (adjusted mean difference $169.89 per patient; 95%CI $43, $297, p = 0.009). This effect is larger in absolute magnitude over the longer follow-up in the NET-plus sample (adjusted mean difference $505.06; 95%CI $96, $915; p = 0.016), mostly due to additional health service utilisation. For the primary outcome, the NET intervention is more costly and more effective than passive dissemination; entailing an additional cost of $1246 per additional patient appropriately screened for PTA ($169.89/0.1363; Fiellers 95%CI $525, $2055). For NET to be considered cost-effective with 95% confidence, decision-makers would need to be willing to trade one quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for 25 additional patients appropriately screened for PTA. While these results reflect our best estimate of cost-effectiveness given the data, it is possible that a NET intervention that has been scaled and streamlined ready for wider roll-out may be more or less cost-effective than the NET intervention as delivered in the trial. Conclusions While the NET intervention does improve the management of mTBI in the ED, it also entails a significant increase in cost and--as delivered in the trial--is unlikely to be cost-effective at currently accepted funding thresholds. There may be a scope for a scaled-up and streamlined NET intervention to achieve a better balance between costs and outcomes. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001286831, date registered 12 December 2012. Keywords: Mild head injury, Mild traumatic brain injury, Emergency medicine, Implementation science, Clinical practice guideline, Evidence-based practice, Cost-effectiveness
    Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice – Research ; Head Injuries – Care and Treatment ; Hospital Emergency Services – Usage ; Medical Economics – Analysis;
    ISSN: 1748-5908
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Implementation Science, 01 August 2012, Vol.7(1), p.74
    Description: Abstract The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research...
    Keywords: Knowledge Translation Research ; Study Protocol ; Neurotrauma ; Traumatic Brain Injury ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1748-5908
    E-ISSN: 1748-5908
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Implementation science : IS, 07 August 2012, Vol.7, pp.74
    Description: The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys); theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences.
    Keywords: Clinical Protocols ; Brain Injuries -- Therapy ; Translational Medical Research -- Organization & Administration
    E-ISSN: 1748-5908
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Implementation Science, 2018, Vol.13, pp.urn:issn:1748-5908
    Description: Background: Evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the emergency department (ED) are now widely available, and yet, clinical practice remains inconsistent with the guidelines. The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) intervention was developed to increase...
    Keywords: Mild Head Injury ; Mild Traumatic Brain Injury ; Emergency Medicine ; Implementation Science ; Clinical Practice Guideline ; Evidence-Based Practice ; Cost-Effectiveness ; Traumatic Brain-Injury ; Cost-Effectiveness ; Implementation Strategies ; Health ; Quality ; Consistency ; Depression ; Anxiety ; Very Good
    ISSN: 1748-5908
    Source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2019, Vol.51(1), pp.32-39
    Description: Objectives: Debate regarding factors associated with persistent symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury continues. Nested within a trial aiming to change practice in emergency department management of mild traumatic brain injury, this study investigated the nature of persistent symptoms, work/...
    Keywords: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury ; Post-Concussion Symptoms ; Anxiety ; Quality Of Life ; Head-Injury ; Early Predictors ; Outcomes ; Population ; Depression ; Validity ; Anxiety ; Scales ; Risk ; Good
    ISSN: 1650-1977
    E-ISSN: 16512081
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Trials, 11 July 2014, Vol.15, pp.281
    Description: Mild head injuries commonly present to emergency departments. The challenges facing clinicians in emergency departments include identifying which patients have traumatic brain injury, and which patients can safely be sent home. Traumatic brain injuries may exist with subtle symptoms or signs, but can still lead to adverse outcomes. Despite the existence of several high quality clinical practice guidelines, internationally and in Australia, research shows inconsistent implementation of these recommendations. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a targeted, theory- and evidence-informed implementation intervention to increase the uptake of three key clinical recommendations regarding the emergency department management of adult patients (18 years of age or older) who present following mild head injuries (concussion), compared with passive dissemination of these recommendations. The primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing the percentage of patients for which appropriate post-traumatic amnesia screening is performed. The design of this study is a cluster randomised trial. We aim to include 34 Australian 24-hour emergency departments, which will be randomised to an intervention or control group. Control group departments will receive a copy of the most recent Australian evidence-based clinical practice guideline on the acute management of patients with mild head injuries. The intervention group will receive an implementation intervention based on an analysis of influencing factors, which include local stakeholder meetings, identification of nursing and medical opinion leaders in each site, a train-the-trainer day and standardised education and interactive workshops delivered by the opinion leaders during a 3 month period of time. Clinical practice outcomes will be collected retrospectively from medical records by independent chart auditors over the 2 month period following intervention delivery (patient level outcomes). In consenting hospitals, eligible patients will be recruited for a follow-up telephone interview conducted by trained researchers. A cost-effectiveness analysis and process evaluation using mixed-methods will be conducted. Sample size calculations are based on including 30 patients on average per department. Outcome assessors will be blinded to group allocation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001286831 (date registered 12 December 2012).
    Keywords: Emergency Medical Services ; Evidence-Based Medicine ; Research Design ; Brain Injuries -- Therapy
    E-ISSN: 1745-6215
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Implementation Science, 01 January 2019, Vol.14(1), pp.1-16
    Description: Abstract Background Evidence-based guidelines for management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the emergency department (ED) are now widely available; however, clinical practice remains inconsistent with these guidelines. A targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention (Neurotrauma...
    Keywords: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury ; Cluster Trial ; Effectiveness ; Emergency Department ; Implementation Science ; Clinical Practice Guideline ; Public Health
    E-ISSN: 1748-5908
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