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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.370(1), pp.497-509
    Description: Aims: We analysed current carbon (C) stocks in fine root and aboveground biomass of riparian forests and influential environmental parameters on either side of a dike in the Donau-Auen National Park, Austria. Methods: On both sides of the dike, carbon (C) stock of fine roots (CFR) under four dominant tree species and of aboveground biomass (CAB) were assessed by topsoil cores (0-30 cm) and angle count sampling method respectively (n=48). C stocks were modeled, performing boosted regression trees (BRT). Results: Overall CFR was 2.8 t ha super(-1), with significantly higher C stocks in diked (DRF) compared to flooded riparian forests (FRF). In contrast to CFR, mean CAB was 123 t ha super(-1) and lower in DRF compared to FRF. However, dike construction was consistently ruled out as a predictor variable in BRT. CFR was influenced by the distance to the Danube River and the dominant tree species. CAB was mainly influenced by the magnitude of fluctuations in the groundwater table and the distances to the river and the low groundwater table. Conclusions: Despite pronounced differences in FRF and DRF, we conclude that there is only weak support that dikes directly influence C allocation in floodplain forests within the time scale considered (110 years).
    Keywords: Aboveground biomass ; Belowground biomass ; Carbon distribution ; Carbon sequestration ; Dike ; Ecosystem services ; Floodplain forest
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Geomorphology, 01 June 2014, Vol.214, pp.157-167
    Description: Sediment trapping and organic carbon (OC) accretion in soil are crucial ecosystem services of floodplain forests. However, interactions between the two processes have scarcely been analyzed at the ecosystem level. This study aimed at quantifying OC accretion parameters (CAP, including sedimentation rate, OC concentration, OC accretion) over roughly the last 50 years on both sides of a dike in a Danubian floodplain forest in Austria. Additionally, we determined soil OC stocks (0–100 cm in depth) and modeled both CAP and OC stocks in relation to environmental parameters. Overall, mean sedimentation rate and OC accretion of the riparian forest were 0.8 cm y and 3.3 t OC ha y and significantly higher in flooded riparian forest (FRF; 1.0 cm y and 4.1 t OC ha y ) than in diked riparian forest (DRF; 0.3 cm y and 1.5 t OC ha y ). In contrast, mean OC concentration (0.05 t OC m ) and OC stocks (238 t OC ha ) were significantly higher in the DRF than in FRF (0.05 vs. 0.04 t OC m and 286 vs. 201 t OC ha ). Modeling revealed tree species, fluctuation of groundwater table, and the distance to the river as valuable indicators for OC accretion rate. The OC concentration and distance to the river were positively and sedimentation negatively correlated with OC stock. The dike was consistently ruled out as a significant predictor variable. Consequently, differences among FRF and DRF seem to be related rather to longer term processes during the last centuries than directly to the dike. Our findings highlight the relevance of sediment quality (i.e., OC concentration) for building up long-term soil OC stocks, whereas sediment quantity is the main driver of recent OC accretion rates.
    Keywords: Carbon Accretion Rate ; Carbon Stock ; Dendrogeomorphology ; Dike ; Floodplain Forest ; Sedimentation Rate ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0169-555X
    E-ISSN: 1872-695X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Catena, April 2016, Vol.139, pp.9-18
    Description: Riparian woodlands consist of different landscape units characterized by different hydroecomorphological site conditions that are reflected in the distribution of soils and tree species. These conditions are determined by flooding frequency and duration, distance to river channels, elevation and water flow velocity. The influence of these environmental drivers on the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) has as yet not been investigated. Hence, the aim of our study is to link soil formation and its drivers with stabilizing processes of SOM in riparian floodplain forests. We investigated soils and sediments at two sites in the ash–maple–elm–oak alluvial forest zone (AMEO sites) and two sites in the willow-poplar alluvial forest zone (WiP sites) within the riparian zone of the Danube near Vienna (Austria). Sediments and soils were characterized based on texture, contents of organic carbon (OC), nitrogen, Fe oxides, and soil pH. Density fractionation was used to separate OC fractions in terms of stabilization process and resulting organic matter (OM) turnover time: the free light fraction (fast turnover), the light fraction occluded in aggregates (intermediate turnover) and the heavy fraction of OM associated tightly to mineral surfaces (slow turnover). At both sites, soil and sediment properties reflect the hydroecomorphological site conditions for formation of the landscape units in the riparian zone: Soils at AMEO sites develop during constant deposition of fine-textured sediment while water flow velocity is low. Progressing soil development causes a continuous decrease in OC content with increasing soil depth, mainly from fractions with fast and intermediate turnover. As a consequence the heavy fraction clearly dominates with around 90% of OC. Temporally variable flooding conditions with occurring turbulences found at WiP sites result in a discontinuous change of soil properties with increasing soil depth. Former topsoil horizons buried by huge amounts of sediments seem to keep the OC fractionation typical for topsoil horizons with extraordinarily high amounts of light fraction OM (free and occluded) representing 20–40% of total OC. The presented results confirm that sedimentation and soil formation are simultaneous processes at AMEO sites. At WiP sites both processes seem uncoupled with alternate phases of sedimentation and soil formation. Thus, the frequent burial of topsoil material formed at WiP sites seems to enable the conservation of unstable organic matter fractions at this part of active floodplains.
    Keywords: Fluvisol Formation ; Soil Organic Matter ; Density Fractionation ; Riparian Floodplains ; Soil Aggregates ; Riparian Forests ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2010, Vol.173(5), pp.644-653
    Description: Riparian forests are assumed to play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, little data are available on C stocks of floodplains in comparison to other terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we quantified the C stocks of aboveground biomass and soils of riparian vegetation types at 76 sampling sites in the Donau‐Auen National Park in Austria. Based on our results and a remotely sensed vegetation map, we estimated total C stocks. Carbon stocks in soils (up to 354 t ha within 1 m below surface) were huge compared to other terrestrial ecosystems. As expected, soils of different vegetation types showed different texture with a higher percentage of sandy soils at the softwood sites, while loamy soils prevailed at hardwood sites. Total C stocks of vegetation types were significantly different, but reflect differences in woody plant biomass rather than in soil C stocks. Mature hardwood and cottonwood forests proved to have significantly higher total C stocks (474 and 403 t ha, respectively) than young reforestations (217 t ha) and meadows (212 t ha). The C pools of softwood forests (356 t ha) ranged between those of hardwood/cottonwood forests and of reforestations/meadows. Our study proves the relevance of floodplains as possible C sinks, which should be increasingly taken into account for river management. Furthermore, we conclude that plant‐species distribution does not indicate the conditions of sedimentation and soil C sequestration over the time span of interest for the development of soil C stocks.
    Keywords: Carbon Stocks ; Organic Carbon ; Donau‐Auen National Park ; Fluvial Ecosystems ; Riparian Forest
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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