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  • Cinatl, Jindrich  (5)
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  • 1
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008, Vol. 46(6), p.2122
    Description: Here we describe for the first time the productive in vitro infection of human retinal pigment epithelial cells by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), resulting in a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) that is characterized by enlarged cells with increased granularity. Depending on the CPE dissemination, high titers of up to 1.6 x 10 super(6) PFU of cell-free and cryostable VZV/ml can be recovered.
    Keywords: Retinal Pigment Epithelium ; Retina ; Replication ; Pigments ; Infection ; Varicella-Zoster Virus ; Replication;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 2
    In: Neuro-Oncology, 2014, Vol. 16(11), pp.1469-1477
    Description: BACKGROUND: Experimental findings have suggested that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of tumor cells may exert oncomodulatory effects that enhance tumor malignancy. However, controversial findings have been published on the presence of HCMV in malignant tumors. Here, we present the first study that systematically investigates HCMV infection in human nervous system tumors by highly sensitive immunohistochemistry in correlation with the HCMV serostatus of the patients.METHODS: Immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR-based methods to detect different HCMV antigens and genomic HCMV DNA were optimized prior to the investigation of pathological samples. Moreover, the pathological results were matched with the HCMV serostatus of the patients.RESULTS: HCMV immediate-early, late, and pp65 antigens could be detected in single cells from HCMV strain Hi91-infected UKF-NB-4 neuroblastoma cells after 1:1024 dilution with noninfected UKF-NB-4 cells. Genomic HCMV DNA could be detected in copy numbers as low as 430 copies/mL. However, we did not detect HCMV in tumors from a cohort of 123 glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, or neuroblastoma patients. Notably, we detected nonspecifically positive staining in tumor tissues of HCMV seropositive and seronegative glioblastoma patients. The HCMV serostatus of 67 glioblastoma patients matched the general epidemiological prevalence data for Western countries (72% of female and 57% of male glioblastoma patients were HCMV seropositive). Median survival was not significantly different in HCMV seropositive versus seronegative glioblastoma patients.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCMV-infected tumor cells may be much lower than previously reported based on highly sensitive detection methods.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus ; Glioma ; Oncomodulation
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Materials Today, September 2012, Vol.15(9), pp.394-404
    Description: The demand to develop convergent technology platforms, such as bio-functionalized medical devices, is rapidly increasing. However, the loss of biological function of the effector molecules during sterilization represents a significant and general problem. Therefore, we have developed and characterized a nano-coating (NC) formulation capable of maintaining the functionality of proteins on biological-device combination products. As a proof of concept, the NC preserved the structural and functional integrity of an otherwise highly fragile antibody immobilized on polyurethane during deleterious sterilizing irradiation (≥ 25 kGy). The NC procedure enables straight-forward terminal sterilization of bio-functionalized materials while preserving optimal conditioning of the bioactive surface.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 1369-7021
    E-ISSN: 1873-4103
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  • 4
    In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2008, 2008, Vol. 52(7), pp.615-622
    Description: Objectives: Our paper measures the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients at the University Hospital of Frankfurt/Main, and correlates the prevalence with risk factors for exposure to and infection of healthcare workers (HCWs). Individual risk assessments were calculated for exposed HCWs. Methods: Survey of patients admitted to a German University Hospital. Markers for HBV, HCV and HIV were studied and evaluated statistically. Data on needlestick injuries (NSIs) among HCWs were correlated with the prevalence of infectious patients. Results: The HBV, HCV and HIV prevalence among patients at the University Hospital were 5.3% ( n  = 709/13 358), 5.8% ( n  = 1167/20 163) and 4.1% ( n  = 552/13 381), respectively. Our results indicate that the prevalence of blood-borne infections in patients was about nine times higher for HBV, ∼15 times higher for HCV and ∼82 times higher for HIV than in the overall German population. The highest risk of acquiring a blood-borne infection via NSI was found in the department of internal medicine due to increased prevalence of blood-borne pathogens in patients under treatment. Conclusions: While accidental NSIs were most frequent in surgery, the nominal risk of blood-borne virus infection was greatest in the field of internal medicine. The study underlines the importance of HBV vaccinations and access to HIV-post-exposure prophylaxis for HCWs as well as the use of anti-needlestick devices.
    Keywords: Blood - Borne Viruses ; Healthcare Workers ; Occupational Infections
    ISSN: 0003-4878
    E-ISSN: 1475-3162
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, February 2006, Vol.47(2), pp.645-51
    Description: In addition to neuroinvasive disease, West Nile virus (WNV) infection is frequently associated with self-limiting chorioretinitis and vitritis. However, the mechanisms of ophthalmic WNV infection are rarely investigated, in part because of the lack of reliable in vitro models. The authors therefore established the first model of ocular WNV infection and investigated interaction of WNV with IFN signal-transduction mechanisms. Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were infected with WNV strain NY385-99 at a multiplicity of infection of 5. Virus replication was evaluated by virus titers at different times after infection. The susceptibility of RPE cells to WNV infection was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. IFN-beta expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and by measurements of antiviral activity in cell culture supernatants. IFN signaling was evaluated by phosphorylation of transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 2 (STAT1/2) proteins, with immunoblot analysis. RPE cells appeared to be highly sensitive to WNV infection. Maximum viral titers were found 24 hours after infection, followed by a continuous decline during the course of infection. WNV infection of RPE cells was followed by increased IFN-beta expression associated with IFN signaling and subsequent inhibition of WNV replication. In this study, the first cell culture model of ophthalmic WNV infection was developed and characterized in RPE cells, and the molecular mechanisms of WNV infection were studied. The data suggest that WNV induces a general antiviral state in RPE cells. This general antiviral state correlates with WNV-induced IFN signaling in retinal cells.
    Keywords: Interferon-Beta -- Biosynthesis ; Pigment Epithelium of Eye -- Virology ; Signal Transduction -- Physiology ; West Nile Virus -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0146-0404
    E-ISSN: 15525783
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