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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Injury, 2007, Vol.38(9), pp.993-1000
    Description: Given the recent emphasis on developing prehospital trauma care globally, we embarked upon a multicentre study to compare trauma patients’ outcome within and between countries with technician-operated advanced life support (ALS) and physician-operated (Doc-ALS) emergency medical service (EMS) systems. These environments represent the continuum of prehospital care in high income countries with more advanced prehospital trauma care systems. Five countries with ALS-EMS system and four countries with Doc-ALS EMS system provided us with de-identified patient-level data from their national or local trauma registries. Generalised linear latent and mixed models was used in order to compare emergency department (ED) shock rate (systolic blood pressure (SBP) 〈90 mmHg) and early trauma fatality rate (i.e. death during the first 24 h after hospital arrival) between ALS and Doc-ALS EMS systems. Logistic regression was used to compare outcomes of interest among different countries, accounting for within-system correlation in patient outcomes. After adjustment for patient age, sex, type and mechanism of injury, injury severity score and SBP at scene, the ED shock rate did not vary significantly between Doc-ALS and ALS systems (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.73–1.91). However, the early trauma fatality rate was significantly lower in Doc-ALS EMS systems compared with ALS EMS systems (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54–0.91). Furthermore, we found a considerable heterogeneity in patient outcomes among countries even with similar type of EMS systems. These findings suggest that prehospital trauma care systems that dispatch a physician to the scene may be associated with lower early trauma fatality rates, but not necessarily with significantly better outcomes on other clinical measures. The reasons for these findings deserve further studies.
    Keywords: Emergency Medical Services (Ems) ; Trauma ; Injury ; International ; Mortality ; Clustered Study ; Shock Rate ; Intracluster Correlation Coefficient (ICC)
    ISSN: 0020-1383
    E-ISSN: 1879-0267
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Injury, 2007, Vol.38(9), pp.1001-1013
    Description: To compare patient- and injury-related characteristics of trauma victims and pre-hospital trauma care systems among different developed and developing countries. We collated de-identified patient-level data from national or local trauma registries in Australia, Austria, Canada, Greece, Germany, Iran, Mexico, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. Patient and injury-related characteristics of trauma victims with injury severity score (ISS) 〉15 and the pre-hospital trauma care provided to these patients were compared among different countries. A total of 30,339 subjects from one or several regions in 11 countries were included in this analysis. Austria (51%), Germany (41%) and Australia (30%) reported the highest proportion of air ambulance use. Monterrey, Mexico (median 10.1 min) and Montreal, Canada (median 16.1 min) reported the shortest and Germany (median: 30 min) and Austria (median: 26 min) reported the longest scene time. Use of intravenous fluid therapy among advanced EMS systems without physicians as pre-hospital care providers, varied from 30% (in the Netherlands) to 55% (in the US). The corresponding percentages in advanced EMS systems with physicians actively involved in pre-hospital trauma care, excluding Montreal in Canada, ranged from 63% (in London, in the UK) to 75% in Germany and Austria. Austria and Germany also reported the highest percentage of pre-hospital intubation (61% and 56%, respectively). This study provides an early look at international variability in patient mix, process of care, and performance of different pre-hospital trauma care systems worldwide. International efforts should be devoted to developing a minimum standard data set for trauma patients.
    Keywords: Pre-Hospital Trauma Care ; Emergency Medical Service (Ems) Systems ; Developed and Developing Countries ; Advanced Life Support ; Basic Life Support ; Intravenous Fluid Therapy ; Endotracheal Intubation
    ISSN: 0020-1383
    E-ISSN: 1879-0267
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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