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  • Curths, Christoph  (5)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Sciences, 01 June 2014, Vol.1(1), pp.63-76
    Description: Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are small non-human primates (NHPs) that are often used for respiratory research. Translational animal models of various pulmonary diseases in marmosets have been developed in favor of models in old world monkeys (OWM, e.g., rhesus or cynomolgus monkeys)....
    Keywords: Marmoset ; Non-Human Primate ; Animal Models ; Respiratory Diseases ; Veterinary Medicine
    E-ISSN: 2306-7381
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(5), p.e0176597
    Description: The cellular serine protease TMPRSS2, a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) family, cleaves and activates the hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses (FLUAV) in cell culture and is essential for spread of diverse FLUAV in...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, June 2016, Vol.68(6), pp.335-343
    Description: Common marmosets ( ) are frequently used as translational animal models for human diseases. However, a comparative study of cytological and histochemical detection methods as well as morphometric and ultrastructural characterization of neutrophils and eosinophils in this species is lacking. Blood samples of house dust mite sensitized and allergen challenged as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged marmosets were analyzed with different cytological and histological staining methods. Furthermore, cell size and number of nuclear segments were compared between neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy was performed to characterize the ultrastructure of granulocytes. Of all applied cytological stains, three allowed differentiation of eosinophils and neutrophils and, thus, reliable quantification in blood smears: May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, Congo Red and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate-Esterase. For histology, Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) could not demonstrate clear differences, whereas Sirius Red, Congo Red, and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate Esterase showed capable results for identification of eosinophils or neutrophils in lung tissue. Morphometry revealed that marmoset neutrophils have more nuclear segments and are slightly larger than eosinophils. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils presented with large homogeneous electron-dense granules without crystalloid cores, while neutrophils were characterized by heterogeneous granules of different size and density. Additionally, sombrero-like vesicles were detected in tissue eosinophils of atopic marmosets, indicative for hypersensitivity-related piecemeal degranulation. In conclusion, we provide a detailed overview of marmoset eosinophils and neutrophils, important for phenotypic characterization of marmoset models for human airway diseases.
    Keywords: Common Marmoset ; Eosinophil ; Neutrophil ; Cytological Staining ; Histology ; Ultrastructural Morphology ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0940-2993
    E-ISSN: 1618-1433
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Clinical science, Vol.126 (2014), No.2, pp.155-62
    Description: Animal models with a high predictive value for human trials are needed to develop novel human-specific therapeutics for respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine lung-function parameters in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) that can be used to detect pharmacologically or provocation-induced AHR (airway hyper-responsiveness). Therefore a custom-made lung-function device that allows application of defined aerosol doses during measurement was developed. It was hypothesized that LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-challenged marmosets show AHR compared with non-challenged healthy subjects. Invasive plethysmography was performed in 12 anaesthetized orotracheally intubated and spontaneously breathing marmosets. Pulmonary data of RL (lung resistance), Cdyn (dynamic compliance), EF50 (mid-expiratory flow), Poes (oesophageal pressure), MV (minute volume), respiratory frequency (f) and VT (tidal volume) were collected. Measurements were conducted under baseline conditions and under MCh (methacholine)-induced bronchoconstriction. The measurement was repeated with the same group of animals after induction of an acute lung inflammation by intratracheal application of LPS. PDs (provocative doses) of MCh to achieve a certain increase in RL were significantly lower after LPS administration. AHR was demonstrated in the LPS treated compared with the naïve animals. The recorded lung-function data provide ground for pre-clinical efficacy and safety testing of anti-inflammatory substances in the common marmoset, a new translational NHP (non-human primate) model for LPS-induced lung inflammation. CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES The established invasive lung-function testing in orotracheally intubated marmosets provides ground for pre-clinical safety and efficacy testing of pharmaceuticals in this species. Readout parameters that were previously only accessible in the classic rodent model are now established for a new NHP model. There is growing demand of marmosets as the non-rodent ‘second’ species in pre-clinical tests. The technique described to measure lung function in an NHP model will help to support the current need for models with a high predictive power for human clinical trials. It furthermore incorporates the 3-Rs. Marmosets are handled similar to human probands and can potentially be used for multiple studies, which reduce the animal numbers.
    Keywords: Airway Hyper-Responsiveness ; Lipopolysaccharide ; Lung-Function Measurement ; Lung Resistance ; Marmoset ; Non-Human Primate
    Source: Fraunhofer ePrints (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Clinical science (London, England : 1979), January 2014, Vol.126(2), pp.155-62
    Description: Animal models with a high predictive value for human trials are needed to develop novel human-specific therapeutics for respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine lung-function parameters in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) that can be used to detect pharmacologically or provocation-induced AHR (airway hyper-responsiveness). Therefore a custom-made lung-function device that allows application of defined aerosol doses during measurement was developed. It was hypothesized that LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-challenged marmosets show AHR compared with non-challenged healthy subjects. Invasive plethysmography was performed in 12 anaesthetized orotracheally intubated and spontaneously breathing marmosets. Pulmonary data of R(L) (lung resistance), C(dyn) (dynamic compliance), EF50 (mid-expiratory flow), P(oes) (oesophageal pressure), MV (minute volume), respiratory frequency (f) and V(T) (tidal volume) were collected. Measurements were conducted under baseline conditions and under MCh (methacholine)-induced bronchoconstriction. The measurement was repeated with the same group of animals after induction of an acute lung inflammation by intratracheal application of LPS. PDs (provocative doses) of MCh to achieve a certain increase in RL were significantly lower after LPS administration. AHR was demonstrated in the LPS treated compared with the naïve animals. The recorded lung-function data provide ground for pre-clinical efficacy and safety testing of anti-inflammatory substances in the common marmoset, a new translational NHP (non-human primate) model for LPS-induced lung inflammation.
    Keywords: Lipopolysaccharides ; Respiratory Function Tests ; Bronchial Hyperreactivity -- Physiopathology
    ISSN: 01435221
    E-ISSN: 1470-8736
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