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  • De Cremer, David
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Psychology, Nov, 2010, Vol.95(6), p.1121(13)
    Description: We developed a model predicting that leaders are most effective in stimulating follower cooperation when they consistently treat all group members in a fair manner and are prototypical (i.e., representative of the group's values and norms). In support of this idea, we consistently found that group members cooperated most when prototypical leaders treated themselves as well as their coworkers fairly across a laboratory experiment and 3 cross-sectional field studies. These findings highlight the important role of others' fairness experiences and perceptions in influencing one's own reactions and also the role of leaders as representing the group's values and norms. We discuss implications for fairness theory and the leader prototypicality literature. Keywords: procedural fairness, others' procedural fairness, OCB, cooperation, prototypicality DOI: 10.1037/a0020419
    Keywords: Leadership -- Research ; Leadership -- Psychological Aspects
    ISSN: 0021-9010
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, June 2012, Vol.38(6), pp.760-771
    Description: The present research examines the role of allocations of losses versus gains on the emergence of unethical behavior as a function of people’s social value orientation. The authors demonstrate that (a) proselfs regard unethical behavior to prevent losses as more justified than prosocials (Study 1) and (b) proselfs engage in more unethical behavior to prevent losses than prosocials (Study 2). These differences are explained by prosocials’ greater concern for harm to interdependent others in the domain of losses. A third study further substantiates these findings by revealing that unethical behavior to prevent losses increases among prosocials as harm to others is reduced. In sum, these results reveal that depending on whether people attend only to their self-interest or also consider the outcomes of others, losses either may increase or curtail unethical conduct. Considering social value orientations thus may reconcile conflicting theoretical perspectives on the impact of losses on social decisions.
    Keywords: Ethics ; Unethical Behavior ; Outcome Valence ; Prospect Theory ; Interpersonal Orientations ; Sociology & Social History ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0146-1672
    E-ISSN: 1552-7433
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Human Relations, July 2013, Vol.66(7), pp.973-992
    Description: Theories that explain employees’ positive emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to fair procedures rely on control and relational processes. In the present study, we build on these models, but reverse this perspective to examine when leaders provide voice opportunities in their interactions with employees. We argued that leaders may take care of employees’ perceived individual control needs (which influence their own outcomes) by granting them voice. However, this will be the case particularly when leaders perceive that this employee also wants to belong to the organization, because this makes it more likely that employees will use their voice in a way that does not hurt the organization’s interest. Support for this predicted interaction effect was found in a laboratory experiment and a multisource field study. This research is among the first to identify factors that influence whether leaders will be more likely to act fairly, thus integrating procedural justice processes in the leadership literature.
    Keywords: Leadership ; Need to Belong ; Need for Control ; Procedural Fairness ; Voice ; Social Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 0018-7267
    E-ISSN: 1741-282X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010, Vol.95(3), pp.488-502
    Description: Building on fairness heuristic theory, fairness theory, and trust development models, we argue that unfairly enacted procedures decrease followers' trust in the authority particularly when authorities have high power over their followers. Moreover, we expected trust to mediate procedural fairness effects on followers' attitudes (authorities' legitimacy and charisma attributed to authorities) and organizational citizenship behavior. Procedural fairness effects on these variables, as mediated by trust, should therefore also be stronger when authority power is high. The results of a single- and multisource field study and a laboratory experiment supported these predictions. These studies support the role of authority power as a theoretically and practically relevant moderator of procedural fairness effects and show that its effectiveness is explained through trust in authorities.
    Keywords: Procedural Fairness ; Power ; Trust ; Charisma ; Ocb
    ISSN: 0021-9010
    E-ISSN: 1939-1854
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010, Vol.95(2), pp.291-304
    Description: Prior research has shown that procedural fairness interacts with outcome fairness to influence employees’ work attitudes (e.g., organizational commitment) and behaviors (e.g., job performance, organizational citizenship behavior), such that employees’ tendencies to respond more positively to higher procedural fairness are stronger when outcome fairness is relatively low. In the present studies, we posited that people’s uncertainty about their standing as organizational members would have a moderating influence on this interactive relationship between procedural fairness and outcome fairness, in that the interactive relationship was expected to be more pronounced when uncertainty was high. Using different operationalizations of uncertainty of standing (i.e., length of tenure as a proxy, along with self-reports and coworkers’ reports), we found support for this hypothesis in 4 field studies spanning 3 different countries.
    Keywords: Procedural Fairness ; Outcome Fairness ; Uncertainty ; Standing
    ISSN: 0021-9010
    E-ISSN: 1939-1854
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, August 2015, Vol.45(8), pp.437-450
    Description: We propose that a focus on new money increases forgiveness of others. Three studies provided consistent support for our hypothesis. Working adults recalled an interpersonal offense by a colleague and were subsequently induced to think of either new or used banknotes. Thinking of new (vs. used) banknotes led to weaker destructive tendencies toward the offender (Study 1), more pro‐relationship thinking (Study 2), and higher forgiveness (Study 3). This effect was mediated by feelings of vitality (Study 3), indicating a strength‐based mechanism. We discuss implications for research on money, forgiveness, self‐regulation, and organizational behavior.
    Keywords: Organizational Behavior ; Forgiveness ; Social Psychology;
    ISSN: 0021-9029
    E-ISSN: 1559-1816
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2011, Vol.47(1), pp.139-146
    Description: In two studies we investigated the impact of degree of collective failure in a public good dilemma (near miss vs. large miss) on group members' negative reactions (negative affect, attributions of responsibility for the failure, and intention to leave the group). The results show that upward counterfactual thinking has more impact on members' negative responses when experiencing a near miss rather than a large miss. In Experiment 1, the results show that in the case of a near miss (and not a large miss), negative affect and attributions of responsibility were higher when other-focused counterfactuals rather than self-focused counterfactuals were elicited. Negative affect was found to mediate the effect on attributions of responsibility. Experiment 2 replicates these findings on a wider range of negative responses and reveals that the effect of counterfactual thought on willingness to leave the group in the case of a near miss is mediated by attributions of responsibility.
    Keywords: Public Good Dilemmas ; Counterfactuals ; Negative Affect ; Exit ; Near Miss Effect ; Sociology & Social History ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-1031
    E-ISSN: 1096-0465
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Economic Psychology, 2010, Vol.31(6), pp.843-848
    Description: Prior research has largely failed to focus on how transgressors can promote trust when having made unfair offers in bargaining. I investigated in the context of receiving an unfair offer in a dictator game when financial compensations and when apologies are most effective in motivating trust behavior by the violated party. I hypothesized that when losses were allocated, the violated party would be motivated to show more trust behavior towards the transgressor when a financial compensation (resulting again in equal final outcomes) relative to an apology was delivered, whereas when gains were allocated, apologies would be more effective in promoting trust behavior than a financial compensation. Results from a laboratory study indeed supported this prediction as such demonstrating the importance of how allocation decisions are framed (i.e., loss or gain) in testing the effectiveness of trust repair strategies (financial compensations vs. apologies).
    Keywords: Ultimatum Bargaining ; Trust Repair ; Trust Game ; Apologies ; Financial Compensations ; Gains ; Losses ; Business ; Psychology ; Economics
    ISSN: 0167-4870
    E-ISSN: 1872-7719
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Individual Differences, August 2011, Vol.51(3), pp.267-273
    Description: One of the major challenges that actors in economic exchange relations face today concerns dealing with defection and overcoming the erosion of trust and cooperation that may result from a transgression. As transgressions in these relations usually entail a monetary loss for the victim, a common restorative approach involves providing a financial compensation to the victim. This research examines whether compensations that were provided voluntarily (rather than forced) would promote more trust among victims. In contrast to standard economic theory, we predict that individual differences exist that determine the degree to which victims are susceptible towards information about the financial compensation is delivered in their decision to trust and cooperate again. Experimental data from a trust game confirmed our hypotheses by showing that whereas receiving a voluntary compensation from the transgressor communicates more repentance to victims than when this compensation was imposed, particularly people with a low tendency to forgive discount this repentance in their decision to trust again.
    Keywords: Forgiveness ; Trust ; Financial Compensations ; Trust Game ; Economic Exchanges ; Decision Making ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0191-8869
    E-ISSN: 1873-3549
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Psychology, 2018, Vol.103(3), pp.270-280
    Description: This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment ( N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment ( N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants’ entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants’ confidence.
    Keywords: Entitlement ; Deservingness ; Motivated Reasoning ; Recruitment Practice ; Selection
    ISSN: 0021-9010
    E-ISSN: 1939-1854
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