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  • Doerr, Hans W.  (20)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: BMC Infectious Diseases, Jan 26, 2012, Vol.12, p.24
    Description: Background Europe was certified to be polio-free in 2002 by the WHO. However, wild polioviruses remain endemic in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, occasionally causing polio outbreaks, as in Tajikistan in 2010. Therefore, effective surveillance measures and vaccination campaigns remain important. To determine the poliovirus immune status of a German study population, we retrospectively evaluated the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NA) to the poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 (PV1, 2, 3) in serum samples collected from 1,632 patients admitted the University Hospital of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in 2001, 2005 and 2010. Methods Testing was done by using a standardized microneutralization assay. Results Level of immunity to PV1 ranged between 84.2% (95%CI: 80.3-87.5), 90.4% (88.3-92.3) and 87.5% (85.4-88.8) in 2001, 2005 and 2010. For PV2, we found 90.8% (87.5-90.6), 91.3% (89.3-93.1) and 89.8% (88.7-90.9), in the same period. Seroprevalence to PV3 was 76.6% (72.2-80.6), 69.8% (66.6-72.8) and 72.9% (67.8-77.5) in 2001 and 2005 and 2010, respectively. In 2005 and 2010 significant lower levels of immunity to PV3 in comparison to PV1 and 2 were observed. Since 2001, immunity to PV3 is gradually, but not significantly decreasing. Conclusion Immunity to PV3 is insufficient in our cohort. Due to increasing globalization and worldwide tourism, the danger of polio-outbreaks is not averted - even not in developed countries, such as Germany. Therefore, vaccination remains necessary.
    Keywords: Vaccination -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1471-2334
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: BMC Infectious Diseases, Jan 26, 2012, Vol.12, p.24
    Description: Background Europe was certified to be polio-free in 2002 by the WHO. However, wild polioviruses remain endemic in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, occasionally causing polio outbreaks, as in Tajikistan in 2010. Therefore, effective surveillance measures and vaccination campaigns remain important. To determine the poliovirus immune status of a German study population, we retrospectively evaluated the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NA) to the poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 (PV1, 2, 3) in serum samples collected from 1,632 patients admitted the University Hospital of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in 2001, 2005 and 2010. Methods Testing was done by using a standardized microneutralization assay. Results Level of immunity to PV1 ranged between 84.2% (95%CI: 80.3-87.5), 90.4% (88.3-92.3) and 87.5% (85.4-88.8) in 2001, 2005 and 2010. For PV2, we found 90.8% (87.5-90.6), 91.3% (89.3-93.1) and 89.8% (88.7-90.9), in the same period. Seroprevalence to PV3 was 76.6% (72.2-80.6), 69.8% (66.6-72.8) and 72.9% (67.8-77.5) in 2001 and 2005 and 2010, respectively. In 2005 and 2010 significant lower levels of immunity to PV3 in comparison to PV1 and 2 were observed. Since 2001, immunity to PV3 is gradually, but not significantly decreasing. Conclusion Immunity to PV3 is insufficient in our cohort. Due to increasing globalization and worldwide tourism, the danger of polio-outbreaks is not averted - even not in developed countries, such as Germany. Therefore, vaccination remains necessary.
    Keywords: Vaccination -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1471-2334
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: BMC Infectious Diseases, 01 January 2012, Vol.12(1), p.24
    Description: Abstract Background Europe was certified to be polio-free in 2002 by the WHO. However, wild polioviruses remain endemic in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, occasionally causing polio outbreaks, as in Tajikistan in 2010. Therefore, effective surveillance measures and vaccination campaigns remain important. To determine the poliovirus immune status of a German study population, we retrospectively evaluated the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NA) to the poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 (PV1, 2, 3) in serum samples collected from 1,632 patients admitted the University Hospital of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in 2001, 2005 and 2010. Methods Testing was done by using a standardized microneutralization assay. Results Level of immunity to PV1 ranged between 84.2% (95%CI: 80.3-87.5), 90.4% (88.3-92.3) and 87.5% (85.4-88.8) in 2001, 2005 and 2010. For PV2, we found 90.8% (87.5-90.6), 91.3% (89.3-93.1) and 89.8% (88.7-90.9), in the same period. Seroprevalence to PV3 was 76.6% (72.2-80.6), 69.8% (66.6-72.8) and 72.9% (67.8-77.5) in 2001 and 2005 and 2010, respectively. In 2005 and 2010 significant lower levels of immunity to PV3 in comparison to PV1 and 2 were observed. Since 2001, immunity to PV3 is gradually, but not significantly decreasing. Conclusion Immunity to PV3 is insufficient in our cohort. Due to increasing globalization and worldwide tourism, the danger of polio-outbreaks is not averted - even not in developed countries, such as Germany. Therefore, vaccination remains necessary.
    Keywords: Poliomyelitis ; Vaccination ; Seroepidemiology ; Lack of Immunity ; Germany ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1471-2334
    E-ISSN: 1471-2334
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: BMC Infectious Diseases, Dec 9, 2010, Vol.10, p.347
    Description: Background In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Methods Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. Results The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P [less than] 0.025). In eight sera, the antibody titres measured against CHAT were less than 8, although the titre against Sabin 1 varied between 8 and 64. Following IPV booster, anti-CHAT antibodies increased rapidly in sera of CHAT-negative adults with OPV history. Sera from children with IPV history neutralised CHAT and Sabin 1 strains equally. Conclusion The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination with IPV before handling CHAT in the laboratory.
    Keywords: Poliovirus Vaccines -- Dosage And Administration ; Poliovirus Vaccines -- Research ; Immune Response -- Research ; Poliomyelitis -- Prevention ; Poliomyelitis -- Research
    ISSN: 1471-2334
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC Infectious Diseases, Dec 9, 2010, Vol.10, p.347
    Description: Background In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Methods Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. Results The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P [less than] 0.025). In eight sera, the antibody titres measured against CHAT were less than 8, although the titre against Sabin 1 varied between 8 and 64. Following IPV booster, anti-CHAT antibodies increased rapidly in sera of CHAT-negative adults with OPV history. Sera from children with IPV history neutralised CHAT and Sabin 1 strains equally. Conclusion The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination with IPV before handling CHAT in the laboratory.
    Keywords: Poliovirus Vaccines -- Dosage And Administration ; Poliovirus Vaccines -- Research ; Immune Response -- Research ; Poliomyelitis -- Prevention ; Poliomyelitis -- Research
    ISSN: 1471-2334
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC Infectious Diseases, 01 December 2010, Vol.10(1), p.347
    Description: Abstract Background In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Methods Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. Results The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P 〈 0.025). In eight sera, the antibody titres measured against CHAT were less than 8, although the titre against Sabin 1 varied between 8 and 64. Following IPV booster, anti-CHAT antibodies increased rapidly in sera of CHAT-negative adults with OPV history. Sera from children with IPV history neutralised CHAT and Sabin 1 strains equally. Conclusion The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination with IPV before handling CHAT in the laboratory.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1471-2334
    E-ISSN: 1471-2334
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: BMC infectious diseases, 09 December 2010, Vol.10, pp.347
    Description: In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P 〈 0.025). In eight sera, the antibody titres measured against CHAT were less than 8, although the titre against Sabin 1 varied between 8 and 64. Following IPV booster, anti-CHAT antibodies increased rapidly in sera of CHAT-negative adults with OPV history. Sera from children with IPV history neutralised CHAT and Sabin 1 strains equally. The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination with IPV before handling CHAT in the laboratory.
    Keywords: Antibodies, Neutralizing -- Blood ; Antibodies, Viral -- Blood ; Poliomyelitis -- Prevention & Control ; Poliovirus -- Immunology ; Poliovirus Vaccines -- Immunology
    E-ISSN: 1471-2334
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  • 8
    In: Acta Pædiatrica, February 2009, Vol.98(2), pp.270-276
    Description: Aim: To evaluate incidence, timing and clinical relevance of acquired human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in preterm infants. Methods: The prospective longitudinal study included preterm infants ≤31 weeks. Congenital HCMV infection was excluded by negative HCMV culture from urine or by HCMV‐PCR‐negative umbilical cord blood. Infants from HCMV‐IgG‐positive mothers received thawed frozen breast milk until 33 weeks. Urine samples were obtained weekly for HCMV culture. Data were collected regarding clinical course and milk‐intake. Results: Twenty‐nine mothers (29/48, 60%) of 35 infants were HCMV‐IgG‐positive. Five of 35 infants (14%) excreted HCMV in urine. Three of five children remained asymptomatic. One child developed a respirator‐dependent HCMV pneumonia, the other child an upper airway infection and a transient thrombocytopenia. HCMV infected children had a significant longer hospital stay (median 96 vs. 73 days, p = 0.025) and received more formula milk (89 vs. 44 mL/kg/day, p = 0.04). Mothers of infected children had significantly higher HCMV‐IgG levels than those of non‐infected children (mean 1557 vs. 921 AU/mL, p = 0.048). Nineteen of 48 mothers (40%) with 23 infants were HCMV‐IgG‐negative. These children remained HCMV negative. Conclusion: Feeding preterm infants ≤31 weeks of HCMV‐IgG‐positive mothers with thawed frozen breast milk until 33 completed weeks does not prevent symptomatic HCMV infection in all cases. These infections can be associated with a prolonged hospital stay.
    Keywords: Breast Milk ; Cytomegalovirus ; Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection ; Preterm Infants
    ISSN: 0803-5253
    E-ISSN: 1651-2227
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  • 9
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin, 2009, Vol.33(4), pp.223-227
    Description: Medizinstudenten sind im Rahmen ihrer klinischen Ausbildung einer erhöhten Infektionsgefährdung ausgesetzt. Dessen ungeachtet sind die Impfraten der Medizinstudenten ungenügend. Ein adäquater Impfstatus der Medizinstudenten vor Beginn ihres klinischen Ausbildungsabschnitts ist jedoch wichtig, um nosokomiale Infektionen zu vermeiden.
    Description: Im April und Mai 2007 wurden insgesamt 366 Serumproben von Medizinstudenten des ersten klinischen Semesters ausgewertet. Die serologischen Untersuchungen erfolgten mittels etablierter ELISA-Systeme. Untersucht wurde auf spezifische Antikörper gegen Masern, Mumps, Röteln, Varizellen, Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) und HIV.
    Description: Insgesamt 63,9% (n=234) der Studenten waren gegen Hepatitis B geimpft (Grundimmunisierung, drei Impfdosen). Dagegen hatten 31,7% (n=116) der Studenten bisher noch keine Hepatitis B-Impfung und 4,4% (n=16) kein komplettes Impfschema erhalten (〈drei Impfungen). Zwei Studenten zeigten serologische Marker einer abgelaufenen HBV-Infektion. Es wurde die Erstdiagnose einer HCV-Infektion sowie die Erstdiagnose einer HIV-Infektion gestellt. Bei 7,9% (Masern), 17,5% (Mumps), 6,5% (Röteln) und 2,2% (Varizellen) der Studenten konnten keine virusspezifischen Antikörper nachgewiesen werden.
    Description: Es sollten weitere Anstrengungen unternommen werden, um die Impfraten der Medizinstudenten zu verbessern. Es ist wichtig, Immunitätslücken zu identifizieren und vor dem ersten Patientenkontakt zu schließen. Im Hinblick auf die Erstdiagnose und die Folgen schwerwiegender blutübertragbarer Erkrankungen (z.B. HBV, HCV und HIV) sollten Medizinstudenten auf diese Infektionen untersucht werden.
    Description: Medical students are exposed to infectious diseases during the course of their clinical training. Unfortunately, vaccination rates among medical students remain insufficient. However, immunizations against vaccine-preventable diseases should be carried out before the students enter clinical courses. This is vital in order to prevent nosocomial infections. We screened 366 medical students in their first clinical year for hospital-related viral diseases. Serum samples were collected between April and May 2007. Antibody testing was carried out using commercial ELISA systems against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, 63.9% (n=234) of the students were sufficiently vaccinated against HBV. In contrast, 31.7% (n=116) had not received any HBV vaccine dosage, and 4.4% (n=16) had not completed the full vaccine cycle (〈3 dosage). Remarkably, two students showed serological markers of resolved HBV infection. In addition, one student was HCV-positive and one was HIV-positive, respectively. The following seronegative rates were found: measles (7.9%), mumps (17.5%), rubella (6.5%), and varicella (2.2%). Further work is needed to identify optimal strategies for improving vaccination rates among medical students. It is imperative to identify and limit possible disparities in immunity of vaccine-preventable diseases before initial patient contact. With regard to the primary diagnosis of serious virus diseases including HBV, HCV and HIV, medical students should be screened for these blood borne pathogens.
    Keywords: Blutübertragbare Infektionskrankheiten ; Impfraten ; Medizinstudenten ; Blood Borne Infection ; Medical Students ; Vaccine Uptake Rates
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin / Journal of Laboratory Medicine, July 1, 2009, Vol.33(4), p.-(1)
    Description: Byline: Sabine Wicker; Holger F. Rabenau; Hans W. Doerr; Regina Allwinn Keywords: blood borne infection, medical students, vaccine uptake rates Author Notes: Correspondence: Dr. Sabine Wicker, Betriebsarztlicher Dienst, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany Tel.: +49-69-63014511 Fax: +49-69-63016385 Email: Sabine.Wicker@kgu.de
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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