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  • Englert, D  (24)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 June 2013, Vol.454-455, pp.401-410
    Description: During recent years, increasing incidences of summer droughts – likely driven by climate change – reduced the dilution potential of low-order streams for secondary treated wastewater also in temperate Europe. Despite the potential risks to ecosystem integrity, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the effects of different wastewater dilution potentials on ecosystem functions. The present study investigated the implications of secondary treated wastewater released into a third-order stream (Queich, southwest Germany) during a season with low dilution potential (summer; ~ 90% wastewater) as compared to a season with high dilution potential (winter; ~ 35% wastewater) in terms of leaf litter decomposition and macroinvertebrate communities. Adverse effects in macroinvertebrate mediated leaf mass loss (~ 65%), gammarids' feeding rate (~ 80%), leaf associated fungal biomass (〉 40%) and shifts in macroinvertebrate community structure were apparent up to 100 and 300 m (partially 500 m) downstream of the wastewater treatment plant effluent during winter and summer, respectively. In addition, a laboratory feeding trial demonstrated the potential of powdered activated carbon to reduce the ecotoxicity of released wastewater. These results urge the development and evaluation of adequate management strategies, e.g. the application of advanced wastewater treatment technologies, to protect the integrity of freshwater ecosystems, which is required by the European Water Framework Directive — also considering decreasing dilution potential of streams as projected by climate change scenarios.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Functions ; Leaf Decomposition ; In Situ ; Micropollutants ; Gammarus ; Powdered Activated Carbon ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 December 2015, Vol.538, pp.341-349
    Description: Human activity can degrade the habitat quality for aquatic communities, which ultimately impacts the functions these communities provide. Disentangling the complex interaction between environmental and anthropogenic parameters as well as their alteration both along the stream channel, over the seasons, and finally their impact in the aquatic ecosystem represents a fundamental challenge for environmental scientists. Therefore, the present study investigates the implications of successive land uses (i.e., vineyard, urban area, highway and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)) on structural and functional endpoints related to the ecosystem process of leaf litter breakdown during a winter and summer season in a five km stretch of a second-order stream in southern Germany. This sequence of the different land uses caused, among others, a downstream decline of the ecological status from “high” to “bad” judged based on the SPEAR index together with significant shifts in the macroinvertebrate community composition, which coincided with substantial impairments (up to 100%) in the macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. These effects, seem to be mainly driven by alterations in water quality rather than morphological modifications of the stream's habitat since the key shredder was not in direct contact with the local habitat during in situ bioassays but showed similar response patterns than the other endpoints. While the relative effect size for most endpoints deviated considerably (sometimes above 2-fold) among seasons, the general response pattern pointed to reductions in energy supply for local and downstream communities. Although the present study focused on a single low-order stream with the main purpose of describing the impact of different land uses on various levels of biological organization, which limits the direct transferability and thus applicability of results to other stream ecosystems, the findings point to the need to develop adequate management strategies mitigating land use specific exposures during all seasons to protect ecosystem integrity.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Function ; Leaf Litter Decomposition ; Gammarus ; Land Use ; Shredder ; Low Order Stream ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.85(10), pp.1563-1567
    Description: ► Effects of nTiO and ambient UV-irradiation affect representatives of detrital food webs. ► Accumulation of nTiO at the bottom of the test vessel seems to affect ecotoxicity. ► nTiO and ambient UV-irradiation increases ecotoxicity due to the formation of ROS. Production and use of engineered nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO ), is increasing worldwide, enhancing their probability to enter aquatic environments. However, direct effects of nTiO as well as ecotoxicological consequences due to the interactions of nTiO with environmental factors like ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on representatives of detrital food webs have not been assessed so far. Hence, the present study displayed for the first time adverse sublethal effects of nTiO at concentrations as low as 0.2 mg L on the leaf shredding amphipod both in presence and absence of ambient UV-irradiation following a 7-d exposure. In absence of UV-irradiation, however, the effects seemed to be driven by accumulation of nTiO at the bottom of the test vessels to which the gammarids were potentially exposed. The adverse sublethal and lethal effects on gammarids caused by the combined application of nTiO and ambient UV-irradiation are suggested to be driven by the formation of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, both the accumulation of nTiO at the bottom of the test vessel and the UV induced formation of reactive oxygen species clearly affected its ecotoxicity, which is recommended for consideration in the environmental risk assessment of nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Nanoparticle ; Titanium Dioxide ; Ultraviolet Irradiation ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Accumulation ; Reactive Oxygen Species ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, May 2018, Vol.236, pp.119-125
    Description: Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid are increasingly applied against insect pest infestations on forest trees. However, leaves falling from treated trees may reach nearby surface waters and potentially represent a neonicotinoid exposure source for aquatic invertebrates. Given imidacloprid's susceptibility towards photolysis and high water solubility, it was hypothesized that the leaves' toxicity might be modulated by UV-irradiation during decay on the forest floor, or by leaching and re-mobilization of the insecticide from leaves within the aquatic ecosystem. To test these hypotheses, the amphipod shredder was fed (over 7 d;  = 30) with imidacloprid-contaminated black alder ( ) leaves that had either been pre-treated (i.e., leached) in water for up to 7 d or UV-irradiated for 1 d (at intensities relevant during autumn in Central Europe) followed by a leaching duration of 1 d. Gammarids' feeding rate, serving as sublethal response variable, was reduced by up to 80% when consuming non-pretreated imidacloprid-contaminated leaves compared to imidacloprid-free leaves. Moreover, both leaching of imidacloprid from leaves (for 7 d) as well as UV-irradiation reduced the leaves' imidacloprid load (by 46 and 90%) thereby mitigating the effects on gammarids' feeding rate to levels comparable to the respective imidacloprid-free controls. Therefore, natural processes, such as UV-irradiation and re-mobilization of foliar insecticide residues in water, might be considered when evaluating the risks systemic insecticide applications in forests might pose for aquatic organisms in nearby streams. UV-irradiation and leaching in water reduce imidacloprid residues in contaminated leaves consequently mitigating toxicity for a leaf-shredding amphipod.
    Keywords: Neonicotinoids ; Imidacloprid ; Gammarus ; Leaf Fall ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, April 2015, Vol.52(2), pp.310-322
    Description: The application of fungicides is considered an indispensable measure to secure crop production. These substances, however, may unintentionally enter surface waters via run‐off, potentially affecting the microbial community. To assess such risks adequately, authorities recently called for suitable test designs involving relevant aquatic micro‐organisms. We assessed the structural and functional responses of leaf‐associated microbial communities, which play a key role in the breakdown of allochthonous leaf material in streams, towards the inorganic fungicides copper (Cu) and elemental sulphur (S). These substances are of particular interest as they are authorized for both conventional and organic farming in many countries of the world. We used the food choice of the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum (indicative for micro‐organism‐mediated leaf palatability) as well as microbial leaf decomposition as functional endpoints. Moreover, the leaf‐associated microbial communities were characterized by means of bacterial density, fungal biomass and community composition facilitating mechanistic understanding of the observed functional effects. While Gammarus preferred Cu‐exposed leaves over unexposed ones, microbial leaf decomposition was reduced by both Cu and S (up to 30%). Furthermore, Cu exposure decreased bacterial densities (up to 60%), stimulated the growth of leaf‐associated fungi (up to 100%) and altered fungal community composition, while S did not affect any of the assessed structural endpoints. Synthesis and applications. We observed both structural and functional changes in leaf‐associated microbial communities at inorganic fungicide concentrations realistic for surface water bodies influenced by conventional and organic farming. Our data hence justify a careful re‐evaluation of the environmental safety of the agricultural use of these compounds. Moreover, inclusion of an experimental design similar to the one used in this study in lower tier environmental risk assessments of antimicrobial compounds may aid to safeguard the integrity of aquatic microbial communities and the functions they provide. We observed both structural and functional changes in leaf‐associated microbial communities at inorganic fungicide concentrations realistic for surface water bodies influenced by conventional and organic farming. Our data hence justify a careful re‐evaluation of the environmental safety of the agricultural use of these compounds. Moreover, inclusion of an experimental design similar to the one used in this study in lower tier environmental risk assessments of antimicrobial compounds may aid to safeguard the integrity of aquatic microbial communities and the functions they provide.
    Keywords: Antagonistic Effect ; Antimicrobial ; Aquatic Hyphomycetes ; Bacteria ; Biofilm ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Heavy Metal ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Mixture Toxicity
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, December 2017, Vol.231, pp.1393-1397
    Description: Invertebrate-mediated leaf litter decomposition is frequently used to assess stress-related implications in stream ecosystem integrity. measures such as the mass loss from leaf bags or the feeding of caged invertebrates deployed for days or weeks may, however, fail to detect transient effects due to recovery or compensatory mechanisms. We assessed the relevance of transient effects using the peak exposure towards an insecticide (i.e., etofenprox) as a model scenario at three levels of complexity. These were 1) the assessment of the decomposition realised by invertebrate communities in stream mesocosms over 21 days via leaf bags, 2) 7-days lasting bioassays quantifying the leaf consumption of , and 3) a laboratory experiment determining the daily feeding rate of the same species over 7 days. Etofenprox did not trigger a significantly altered decomposition by invertebrate communities during the leaf bag assay, while bioassays detected a significant reduction in gammarids’ feeding rate at the highest tested concentration. The laboratory bioassay suggests that observed mismatches might be explained by recovery and post-exposure compensation. As leaf-shredding invertebrates are likely in a vulnerable state following transient effects, biomonitoring for implications of peak exposures and other pulsed stress events must happen at an adequate temporal resolution.
    Keywords: Compensatory Feeding ; Ecosystem Integrity ; Functional Response ; Insecticide Peak Exposure ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, October 2018, Vol.241, pp.549-556
    Description: Waterborne exposure towards fungicides is known to trigger negative effects in aquatic leaf-associated microbial decomposers and leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. We expected similar effects when these organisms use leaf material from terrestrial plants that were treated with systemic fungicides as a food source since the fungicides may remain within the leaves when entering aquatic systems. To test this hypothesis, we treated black alder ( ) trees with a tap water control or a systemic fungicide mixture (azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) at two worst-case application rates. Leaves of these trees were used in an experiment targeting alterations in two functions provided by leaf-associated microorganisms, namely the decomposition and conditioning of leaf material. The latter was addressed via the food-choice response of the amphipod shredder . During a second experiment, the potential impact of long-term consumption of leaves from trees treated with systemic fungicides on was assessed. Systemic fungicide treatment altered the resource quality of the leaf material resulting in trends of increased fungal spore production and an altered community composition of leaf-associated fungi. These changes in turn caused a significant preference of for microbially conditioned leaves that had received the highest fungicide treatment over control leaves. This higher food quality ultimately resulted in a higher gammarid growth (up to 300% increase) during the long-term feeding assay. Although the underlying mechanisms still need to be addressed, the present study demonstrates a positive indirect response in aquatic organisms due to systemic pesticide application in a terrestrial system. As the effects from the introduction of plant material treated with systemic fungicides strongly differ from those mediated via other pathways (e.g., waterborne exposure), our study provides a novel perspective of fungicide-triggered effects in aquatic detritus-based food webs. Leaves from trees treated with systemic fungicides cause positive effects in an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.
    Keywords: Aquatic Hyphomycetes ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Resource Quality ; Systemic Pesticides ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2015, Vol.205, pp.16-22
    Description: Copper (Cu) exposure can increase leaf-associated fungal biomass, an important food component for leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. To test if this positive nutritional effect supports the physiological fitness of these animals and to assess its importance compared to waterborne toxicity, we performed...
    Keywords: Other Biological Topics ; Annan Biologi
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 18736424
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 07 February 2017, Vol.51(3), pp.1785-1794
    Description: Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides are increasingly used as a crop protection measure to suppress insect pests on trees. However, senescent foliage falling from treated trees represents a rarely studied pathway through which neonicotinoids may enter nontarget environments, e.g., surface waters. To estimate risk posed by this pathway, neonicotinoid residues were analyzed in foliage from black alder trees treated with one of three neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, or acetamiprid) at five concentrations, each ranging from 0.0375-9.6 g active ingredient/cm trunk diameter at breast height (n = 3). Foliar residues measured at the time of leaf fall were used as input parameters for a model predicting imidacloprid water concentrations over a 100-m-long stream stretch as a consequence of remobilization from introduced foliage (input: 600 g foliage/m containing 80 μg imidacloprid/g). The water concentration (up to ∼250 ng/L) predicted by the model exceeded the recently proposed Maximum Permissible Concentration of 8.3 ng/L for ∼6.5 days. Moreover, dietary uptake was identified as an additional exposure route for aquatic organisms. The alternative pathway (i.e., introduction via leaf fall) and exposure route (i.e., dietary uptake) associated with the systemic nature of neonicotinoids should be accounted for during their registration process in order to safeguard ecosystem integrity.
    Keywords: Rivers ; Trees -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 16 May 2017, Vol.51(10), pp.5793-5802
    Description: Neonicotinoids are increasingly applied on trees as protection measure against insect pests. Consequently, neonicotinoids are inevitably transferred into aquatic environments either via spray drift or surface runoff or (due to neonicotinoids' systemic nature) via senescent leaves. There particularly leaf-shredding invertebrates may be exposed to neonicotinoids through both the water phase and the consumption of contaminated leaves. In 7 day bioassays (n = 30), we examined ecotoxicological differences between these two exposure scenarios for an amphipod and an insect nymph with their feeding rate as the response variable. Organisms either experienced waterborne neonicotinoid (i.e., imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and acetamiprid) exposure only or a combined exposure (waterborne and dietary) through both the consumption of contaminated leaves and neonicotinoids leaching from leaves into water. The amphipod (7 day ECs from 0.3 to 8.4 μg/L) was more sensitive than the insect nymph (7 day ECs from 7.0 to 19.4 μg/L). Moreover, for both species, concentration-response models derived from water concentrations indicated higher effects under the combined exposure. Together with the observed inability of shredders to avoid neonicotinoid-contaminated leaves, our results emphasize the relevance of dietary exposure (e.g., via leaves) for systemic insecticides. Thus, it would be prudent to consider dietary exposure during the registration of systemic insecticides to safeguard ecosystem integrity.
    Keywords: Insecticides -- Toxicity ; Nitro Compounds -- Toxicity ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Toxicity
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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