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  • Feckler, Alexander  (8)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, January 2015, Vol.196, pp.276-283
    Description: Interactions with environmental parameters may alter the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles. The present study therefore assessed the (in)direct effects of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-TiO ) towards , considering nano-TiO 's photocatalytic properties at ambient UV-intensities. Gammarids' habitat selection was investigated using its feeding preference on leaf discs either exposed to or protected from UV-irradiation in presence of nano-TiO as proxy (  = 49). UV-irradiation alone induced a significant preference for UV-protected habitats, which was more pronounced in simultaneous presence of nano-TiO . This behaviour may be mainly explained by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by nano-TiO . Besides their direct toxicity, ROS may have lowered the leaf-quality in UV-exposed areas contributing (approximately 30%) to the observed behavioural pattern. Since the predicted no effect concentration of nano-TiO in combination with UV-irradiation falls below the predicted environmental concentration this study underpins the importance of considering environmental parameters during the risk assessment of nanoparticles. Results revealed for the first time a PNEC of nano-TiO falling below the PEC indicating a substantial risk for aquatic ecosystems already nowadays.
    Keywords: Gammarus ; Uv-Irradiation ; Interaction Effect ; Reactive Oxygen Species ; Behavioural Response ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, Jan, 2015, Vol.196, p.276(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.09.022 Byline: Alexander Feckler, Ricki R. Rosenfeldt, Frank Seitz, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh Abstract: Interactions with environmental parameters may alter the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles. The present study therefore assessed the (in)direct effects of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-TiO.sub.2) towards Gammarus fossarum, considering nano-TiO.sub.2's photocatalytic properties at ambient UV-intensities. Gammarids' habitat selection was investigated using its feeding preference on leaf discs either exposed to or protected from UV-irradiation in presence of nano-TiO.sub.2 as proxy (n = 49). UV-irradiation alone induced a significant preference for UV-protected habitats, which was more pronounced in simultaneous presence of nano-TiO.sub.2. This behaviour may be mainly explained by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by nano-TiO.sub.2. Besides their direct toxicity, ROS may have lowered the leaf-quality in UV-exposed areas contributing (approximately 30%) to the observed behavioural pattern. Since the predicted no effect concentration of nano-TiO.sub.2 in combination with UV-irradiation falls below the predicted environmental concentration this study underpins the importance of considering environmental parameters during the risk assessment of nanoparticles. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829 Landau, Germany (b) Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lennart Hjelms vag 9, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden Article History: Received 26 June 2014; Revised 16 September 2014; Accepted 22 September 2014
    Keywords: Nanoparticles -- Analysis ; Habitat Conservation -- Analysis ; Titanium Dioxide -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, April 2015, Vol.52(2), pp.310-322
    Description: The application of fungicides is considered an indispensable measure to secure crop production. These substances, however, may unintentionally enter surface waters via run‐off, potentially affecting the microbial community. To assess such risks adequately, authorities recently called for suitable test designs involving relevant aquatic micro‐organisms. We assessed the structural and functional responses of leaf‐associated microbial communities, which play a key role in the breakdown of allochthonous leaf material in streams, towards the inorganic fungicides copper (Cu) and elemental sulphur (S). These substances are of particular interest as they are authorized for both conventional and organic farming in many countries of the world. We used the food choice of the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum (indicative for micro‐organism‐mediated leaf palatability) as well as microbial leaf decomposition as functional endpoints. Moreover, the leaf‐associated microbial communities were characterized by means of bacterial density, fungal biomass and community composition facilitating mechanistic understanding of the observed functional effects. While Gammarus preferred Cu‐exposed leaves over unexposed ones, microbial leaf decomposition was reduced by both Cu and S (up to 30%). Furthermore, Cu exposure decreased bacterial densities (up to 60%), stimulated the growth of leaf‐associated fungi (up to 100%) and altered fungal community composition, while S did not affect any of the assessed structural endpoints. Synthesis and applications. We observed both structural and functional changes in leaf‐associated microbial communities at inorganic fungicide concentrations realistic for surface water bodies influenced by conventional and organic farming. Our data hence justify a careful re‐evaluation of the environmental safety of the agricultural use of these compounds. Moreover, inclusion of an experimental design similar to the one used in this study in lower tier environmental risk assessments of antimicrobial compounds may aid to safeguard the integrity of aquatic microbial communities and the functions they provide. We observed both structural and functional changes in leaf‐associated microbial communities at inorganic fungicide concentrations realistic for surface water bodies influenced by conventional and organic farming. Our data hence justify a careful re‐evaluation of the environmental safety of the agricultural use of these compounds. Moreover, inclusion of an experimental design similar to the one used in this study in lower tier environmental risk assessments of antimicrobial compounds may aid to safeguard the integrity of aquatic microbial communities and the functions they provide.
    Keywords: Antagonistic Effect ; Antimicrobial ; Aquatic Hyphomycetes ; Bacteria ; Biofilm ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Heavy Metal ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Mixture Toxicity
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), January 2015, Vol.196, pp.276-83
    Description: Interactions with environmental parameters may alter the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles. The present study therefore assessed the (in)direct effects of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-TiO(2)) towards Gammarus fossarum, considering nano-TiO(2)'s photocatalytic properties at ambient UV-intensities. Gammarids' habitat selection was investigated using its feeding preference on leaf discs either exposed to or protected from UV-irradiation in presence of nano-TiO(2) as proxy (n = 49). UV-irradiational one induced a significant preference for UV-protected habitats, which was more pronounced in simultaneous presence of nano-TiO(2). This behaviour may be mainly explained by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by nano-TiO(2). Besides their direct toxicity, ROS may have lowered the leaf-quality in UV-exposed areas contributing (approximately 30%) to the observed behavioural pattern. Since the predicted no effect concentration of nano-TiO(2) in combination with UV irradiation falls below the predicted environmental concentration this study underpins the importance of considering environmental parameters during the risk assessment of nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Ecosystem ; Photochemical Processes ; Aquatic Organisms -- Physiology ; Nanoparticles -- Chemistry ; Titanium -- Chemistry ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Chemistry
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, August 2015, Vol.165, pp.154-159
    Description: In aquatic ecosystems, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO ) may adsorb co-occurring chemical stressors, such as copper (Cu). This interaction has the potential to reduce the concentration of dissolved Cu due to surface binding to the nanoparticles. The subsequent sedimentation of nano-TiO agglomerates may increase the exposure of benthic species towards the associated Cu. This scenario was assessed by employing the amphipod as model species and taking advantage of a 2 × 2-factorial design investigating absence and presence of 2 mg nano-TiO /L and 40 μg Cu/L ( = 45; = 24 d) in darkness, respectively. Nano-TiO alone did not affect mortality and leaf consumption, whereas Cu alone caused high mortality (〉70%), reduced leaf consumption (25%) and feces production (30%) relative to the control. In presence of nano-TiO , Cu-induced toxicity was largely eliminated. However, independent of Cu, nano-TiO decreased the gammarids’ assimilation and weight. Hence, nano-TiO may be applicable as Cu-remediation agent, while its potential long-term effects need further attention.
    Keywords: Heavy Metal ; Benthic Invertebrates ; Energy Processing ; Remediation ; Combined Toxicity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1514
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  • 6
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, August 2017, Vol.36(8), pp.2178-2189
    Description: Byline: Jochen P. Zubrod, Dominic Englert, Jakob Wolfram, Ricki R. Rosenfeldt, Alexander Feckler, Rebecca Bundschuh, Frank Seitz, Marco Konschak, Patrick Baudy, Simon Luderwald, Patrick Fink, Andreas Lorke, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh Abstract Leaf litter is a major source of carbon and energy for stream food webs, while both leaf-decomposing microorganisms and macroinvertebrate leaf shredders can be affected by fungicides. Despite the potential for season-long fungicide exposure for these organisms, however, such chronic exposures have not yet been considered. Using an artificial stream facility, effects of a chronic (lasting up to 8 wk) exposure to a mixture of 5 fungicides (sum concentration 20I1/4g/L) on leaf-associated microorganisms and the key leaf shredder Gammarus fossarum were therefore assessed. While bacterial density and microorganism-mediated leaf decomposition remained unaltered, fungicide exposure reduced fungal biomass ([less than or equal to]71%) on leaves from day 28 onward. Gammarids responded to the combined stress from consumption of fungicide-affected leaves and waterborne exposure with a reduced abundance ([less than or equal to]18%), which triggered reductions in final population biomass (18%) and in the number of precopula pairs ([less than or equal to]22%) but could not fully explain the decreased leaf consumption (19%), lipid content ([less than or equal to]43%; going along with an altered composition of fatty acids), and juvenile production (35%). In contrast, fine particulate organic matter production and stream respiration were unaffected. Our results imply that long-term exposure of leaf-associated fungi and shredders toward fungicides may result in detrimental implications in stream food webs and impairments of detrital material fluxes. These findings render it important to understand decomposer communities' long-term adaptational capabilities to ensure that functional integrity is safeguarded. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2178-2189. [c] 2017 SETAC Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article This article includes online-only Supplemental Data. CAPTION(S): Supporting Data.
    Keywords: Aquatic Hyphomycetes ; Chronic Exposure ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Population Development
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Scientific Reports, 01 October 2019, Vol.9(1), pp.1-8
    Description: Abstract Nanoparticle contaminants enter aquatic ecosystems and are transported along the stream network. Here, we demonstrate a novel pathway for the return of nanoparticles from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems via cross-boundary subsidies....
    Keywords: Biology
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2019, Vol.102(3), pp.303-309
    Description: The leaf-shredding crustacean Hyalella azteca , which is indigenous to Northern and Central America, is used to assess environmental risks associated with (metal-)contaminated sediments and to propose sediment quality standards also in Europe. Yet, it is unknown if H. azteca is protective for European crustacean shredders. We thus compared the sensitivity of H. azteca with that of the European species Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus fossarum towards copper- and cadmium-contaminated sediments (prepared according to OECD 218) under laboratory conditions employing mortality and leaf consumption as endpoints. H. azteca either reacted approximately fourfold more sensitive than the most tolerant tested species (as for cadmium) or its sensitivity was only 1.6 times lower than the highest sensitivity determined (as for copper), which should be covered by safety factors applied during risk assessments. Therefore, the results for the sediment type and the two heavy metals tested during the present study in combination with the existence of standardized testing protocols, their ease of culture, and short generation time, suggest H. azteca as suitable crustacean model shredder for assessing the toxicity of sediment-associated metals in Europe.
    Keywords: Body burden ; Ecosystem functioning ; Metals ; Sediment toxicity tests ; Shredders
    ISSN: 0007-4861
    E-ISSN: 1432-0800
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