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  • Feger, Kh  (40)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2011, Vol.130(5), pp.695-706
    Description: The aim of this study was to investigate transpiration and its main driving factors on the example of a hybrid poplar plantation with the clone Populus maximowiczii × P. nigra , cv. Max 1 on a site in the hilly loess region of Saxony (Germany). Transpiration was measured using sap flow techniques during the 2007 and 2008 growing season. At the same time, throughfall, soil moisture dynamics and soil physical properties were also measured. Total transpiration rates amounted to 486 mm and 463 mm, respectively, during the 2 years. Maximum daily transpiration rates reached 6.7 mm/day, while an average of 2.2 mm/day for the entire growing season was recorded. The main controlling factors for stand transpiration included the evaporative demand, water availability and soil temperature. The information was implemented into a simple empirical model for the prediction of transpiration. It can be concluded that large-scale establishment of poplar plantations will result in a distinct reduction in groundwater recharge. On the other hand, surface run-off and soil erosion may decrease. Due to limited water availability in the late growing season, the growth potential of the tested clone cannot fully be exploited at many sites in Germany.
    Keywords: Evapotranspiration ; Soil water ; Poplar ; Plantation ; Sap flow
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 April 2013, Vol.449, pp.63-70
    Description: Increasing arsenic concentrations in freshwater ecosystems is of global concern. Processes affecting arsenic fluxes in catchments are known. These processes are in turn controlled by the underlying geology and air pollution history. In contrast to the knowledge on catchment processes less is known about the hydrochemical processes controlling the fixation/remobilization of arsenic within lakes and artificial reservoirs. Consequently, we examined a reservoir system in the Ore Mts. (Germany) regarding its sink and source potentials affecting arsenic fluxes. This area was faced with heavy deposition inputs from coal burning based acid rain until the beginning of the 1990s. Hereafter concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in runoff waters decreased, whereas dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations are still increasing. Along with this, arsenic concentrations in the water discharge from the catchments increase. Our results reveal that the sediments of the investigated reservoir system contain high inventories of arsenic in association with ferric and organic phases. A nitrate deficit dependent arsenic release is suggested. It is indicated that arsenic release from the reservoir sediments may be controlled by water nitrate concentration, which in turn is dependent on the nitrate concentration in the runoff water from the catchment. ► We examine increasing dissolved arsenic in water reservoirs. ► Arsenic release from sediments was controlled by decreasing water nitrate concentration. ► Basin sediment arsenic was found in ferric and humic matter. ► A long term trend of arsenic in water is negatively related to nitrate.
    Keywords: Arsenic Fluxes ; Iron ; Metalloid ; Nitrate ; Sediments ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, February 2015, Vol.178(1), pp.3-3
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jpln.201590003/abstract Byline: Karl-Heinz Feger, Sven Schubert ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Catena, February 2016, Vol.137, pp.651-659
    Description: An inventory of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to 100-cm depth was carried out at four pedologically comparable forest sites in the Amani Nature Reserve (Eastern Usambara Mountains, NE Tanzania). Three plots at primary tropical submontane forests and one plot at a secondary forest derived from selective cutting were sampled. The aim was to quantify the SOC stocks including the spatial variation, and to put the findings into a pedological context. At each site, a combined approach was applied with auger samples taken to 40-cm depth (topsoil) at eight points (10 cm depth intervals) surrounding a central soil pit. The subsoil was sampled at 40–100 cm depth in the soil pit, accompanied by a detailed soil description and classification according to FAO and WRB. In addition, soil analysis comprised a set of chemical and physical parameters. According to WRB, the soils belonged to the reference groups Acrisols and Alisols, depending on the method used for estimating clay-related potential cation exchange capacity. The SOC stocks to 100-cm depth ranged between 16.9 and 22.4 kg C m (mean 19.7 kg C m ). The SOC stock at the secondary forest (20.2 kg C m ) did not differ from those of the primary forest plots. In all profiles the subsoil contributed to the SOC stocks to 100-cm depth, whereas the contribution of the forest floor was small. The variation of SOC stocks between the forest sites may be explained by ‘old’ land-use and/or differences in soil chemical parameters controlling SOC stabilization. The SOC stocks appear to be related to the amounts of poorly crystallized Fe- and Al-oxides. The mechanisms and potentials for SOC sequestration are, however, unclear and merit further detailed study. Our inventory of SOC under forest represents a suitable baseline for the assessment of SOC stock changes after land-use conversion to agriculture on typical soils of the humid tropics.
    Keywords: Tropical Submontane Forest ; Soc Stock ; Soc Stabilization ; Iron and Aluminum Oxides ; Acrisols ; Alisols ; Eastern Usambara Mountains ; Tanzania ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 5
    In: Hydrological Processes, 30 January 2014, Vol.28(3), pp.1284-1293
    Description: As an integrated result of many driving factors, significant declines in streamflow were observed in many rivers of the Loess Plateau (NW China). This can aggravate the inherent severe water shortages and threatens the regional development. Therefore, it is urgent to develop adaptive measures to regulate the water yield to ensure water security. A key step for successful implementation of such measures is to separate the response of water yield to the main driving factors of land management and climate change. In this study, the variation of annual streamflow, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and climatic water balance in a small catchment in the Loess Plateau (near Pingliang, Gansu province) was examined for over five decades, although the relative contribution of changes in land management and climate on the streamflow reduction were estimated. A statistically significant decreasing trend of ‐1.14 mm y in annual streamflow was detected. Furthermore, an abrupt streamflow reduction because of construction of terraces and check‐dams was identified around 1980. Remarkably, 74% of the total reduction in mean annual streamflow can be attributed to the soil conservation measures. Based on a literature review across the Loess Plateau, we found that the impact of changes in land management and climate on annual streamflow diminished with increasing catchment size. This means that there is a dependency on catchment size for the hydrological response to environmental change. This indicates that at least at the local scale well‐considered land management may help ensure the water security at the Loess Plateau. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Soil Management ; Catchment Management ; Climate Change ; Soil Erosion ; Water Security
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 November 2016, Vol.7(12), p.302
    Description: A growing interest in using forest biomass for bioenergy generation may stimulate intensive harvesting scenarios in Germany. We calculated and compared nutrient exports of conventional stem only (SO), whole tree without needles (WT excl. needles), and whole tree (WT) harvesting in two medium...
    Keywords: Spruce ; Pine ; Thinning ; Aboveground Biomass ; Energetic Use ; Stand Growth ; Nutrient Contents ; Nutrient Accumulation ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2017, Vol.180(3), pp.407-417
    Description: Phosphorus (P) is primarily transported in soil through preferential flow pathways (PFP), which can rapidly move water and matter bypassing large portions of the soil. This study investigated the composition of P forms in PFPs and soil matrix in two profiles at a forested hillslope in the Thuringian Forest (Central Germany), in order to evaluate (1) the effect of PFPs on the distribution of P fractions in forest soils, and (2) how hillslope position influences P fractions and other chemical parameters. To characterize water and mass fluxes in the profiles, flow pathways were visualized using dye tracer experiments. Stained and unstained soil material was sampled to assess differences of chemical parameters in the PFPs and soil matrix, and tested for correlations between chemical parameters to determine the factors influencing P fractions in soils. The results revealed significantly higher P contents (total P and most P fractions) in the upslope profile compared to the downslope profile. This accumulation effect in the upper profile was also observed for C, N, Fe, and Mn. The distribution of flow patterns also differed between the two profiles with stronger vertical infiltration into mineral soil and more preferential flow along stones and roots in the upslope profile compared to the downslope profile. However, the observed difference could not be addressed to hillslope effects as both test plots were located in mid‐slope position, but were strongly influenced by spatial heterogeneity (., micro‐relief). Furthermore, no statistically significant accumulation effect of P or other elements in PFPs compared to soil matrix was found. At the test site, the combination of high stone content with low potential for P sorption, and predominance of near‐surface lateral flow, appears to have hampered the development of gradients in chemical parameters between PFPs and soil matrix.
    Keywords: Phosphorus Fractions ; Forest Soil ; Hillslope Processes ; Preferential Flow ; Pfp
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 December 2016, Vol.8(1), p.19
    Description: The transport of nutrients in forest soils predominantly occurs along preferential flow pathways (PFP). This study investigated the composition of phosphorus (P) forms in PFPs and soil matrix in several temperate beech forests with contrasting soil P contents in Germany. The PFPs were visualized...
    Keywords: Phosphorus Fractions ; Forest Soil ; Preferential Flow ; Pfp ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 June 2015, Vol.6(6), pp.1949-1965
    Description: A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements...
    Keywords: Birch ; Spruce ; Tree Species Effects ; Ph-Value ; Soil Respiration ; Humus ; Topsoil ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2004, Vol.264(1), pp.13-24
    Description: Water-plant relations play a key role in the water cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Consequently, changes in tree species composition may have distinct effects on the water retention capacity as well as on the pattern of streamflow generation. Such changes may result from modified interception properties and transpiration related to differences in canopy properties and root distribution. In order to evaluate the potential hydrological effects of the current silvicultural conversion from monocultural conifer stands into mixed or pure deciduous stands the hydrological model BROOK90 was applied to two forested upland catchments in Germany. The Rotherdbach catchment (9.4 ha, 93 yr-old Norway spruce) is situated in the Eastern Ore Mountains. The Schluchsee catchment (11 ha, 55-yr-old Norway spruce) is located in the higher altitudes of the Black Forest. The calibrated model is capable to describe rather well the temporal variation of streamflow but also the portions of the individual flow components. Data for a beech scenario were adapted for each site using a standard parameter set for deciduous trees provided by BROOK90 . The annual discharge in the fictional beech stand at Rotherdbach is 30 to 50% higher compared to spruce with an increase of soil moisture and especially the slow streamflow components. This mainly results from low interception rates during winter time. In contrast, the spruce stand has a permanently higher interception rate. Effects of tree species conversion are moderate at Schluchsee. The annual discharge of a fictional beech stand at Schluchsee is 7 to 14% higher compared to spruce. There in contrast to Rotherdbach, effects of tree species conversion on soil moisture dynamics are small since vertical percolation in the highly permeable soil dominates and precipitation is abundant. Practical forestry will favorably establish mixed beech–spruce rather than pure beech stands. However, it is critical to simulate mixed stands with BROOK90 . Therefore, a simple summation of model results from spruce and beech according to their respective area in a fictional mixed stand can only be a first approximation. Advanced hydrological simulation of mixed stand conditions should regard interactions of tree species and spatial parameter distribution. However, this is not yet feasible due to a distinct lack of information. As a consequence, there is a strong need to collect relevant hydrological and ecophysiological data in mixed stands in the future.
    Keywords: beech ; BROOK90 ; forest transformation ; model forecast ; spruce ; streamflow
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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