Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Fischer, Markus  (30)
Type of Medium
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 29 March 2016, Vol.113(13), pp.3557-62
    Description: Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality.
    Keywords: Fundiveurope ; Biodiversity ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Spatial Scale ; Β-Diversity ; Biodiversity ; Forests
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 05 October 2018, Vol.362(6410), pp.80-83
    Description: Biodiversity experiments have shown that species loss reduces ecosystem functioning in grassland. To test whether this result can be extrapolated to forests, the main contributors to terrestrial primary productivity, requires large-scale experiments. We manipulated tree species richness by planting more than 150,000 trees in plots with 1 to 16 species. Simulating multiple extinction scenarios, we found that richness strongly increased stand-level productivity. After 8 years, 16-species mixtures had accumulated over twice the amount of carbon found in average monocultures and similar amounts as those of two commercial monocultures. Species richness effects were strongly associated with functional and phylogenetic diversity. A shrub addition treatment reduced tree productivity, but this reduction was smaller at high shrub species richness. Our results encourage multispecies afforestation strategies to restore biodiversity and mitigate climate change.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Climate Change ; Extinction, Biological ; Forests ; Trees -- Classification
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    Description: Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality....
    Keywords: Β-Diversity ; Biodiversity ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Fundiveurope ; Spatial Scale
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    Source: DataCite
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 2016
    Description: There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems.
    Keywords: Earth And Environmental Sciences ; Species Richness ; Soil Microbial Biomass ; Statistical Inevitability ; Current Knowledge ; Extraction Method ; Plant Diversity ; Services ; Nitrogen ; Carbon ; Challenges
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 16 November 2018, Vol.9(1), pp.4839
    Description: Trade-offs and synergies in the supply of forest ecosystem services are common but the drivers of these relationships are poorly understood. To guide management that seeks to promote multiple services, we investigated the relationships between 12 stand-level forest attributes, including structure, composition,...
    Keywords: Forests ; Conservation of Natural Resources -- Methods ; Forestry -- Methods ; Trees -- Physiology
    ISSN: Nature Communications
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    In: Journal Of Plant Ecology, 2017, Vol. 10(1), pp.111-127
    Keywords: Soil Fertility ; Topography ; Soil Erosion ; Matter Transport ; Biodiversity ; Dsm ; Carbon Stocks ; Tree ; Forest ; Bef - China ; China
    ISSN: 1752-9921
    E-ISSN: 1752-993X
    Source: Oxford University Press
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    In: Ecological Monographs, February 2011, Vol.81(1), pp.25-41
    Description: Subtropical broad‐leaved forests in southeastern China support a high diversity of woody plants. Using a comparative study design with 30 × 30 m plots ( = 27) from five successional stages (1 m in height in each plot and counted all woody recruits (bank of all seedlings ≤1 m in height) in each central 10 × 10 m quadrant of each plot. In addition, we measured a number of environmental variables (elevation, slope, aspect, soil moisture, pH, C, N, and C/N ratio) and biotic structural variables (height and cover of layers). Adult species richness varied from 25 to 69 species per plot, and in total 148 woody species from 46 families were recorded. There was a clear successional gradient in species composition as revealed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), but only a poor differentiation of different successional stages with respect to particular species. Adult richness per 100 individuals (rarefaction method) increased with successional stage. None of the measured abiotic variables were significantly correlated with adult species richness. We found no evidence that rare species were responsible for the increasing adult species richness, as richness of rare species among both adults and recruits was independent of the successional stage. Furthermore, the similarity between established adults and recruits did not increase with successional stage. There was a constant number of recruit species and also of exclusive recruit species, i.e., those that had not been present as adult individuals, across all successional stages, suggesting a continuous random immigration over time.
    Keywords: Bef-China ; Chronosequence ; Detrended Correspondence Analysis Dca ; Gutianshan National Nature Reserve ; Immigration ; Negative Density Dependence ; Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling Nmds ; Permanent Forest Dynamic Plots ; Random Assembly ; Secondary Forest Succession ; Zhejiang Province ; China
    ISSN: 0012-9615
    E-ISSN: 1557-7015
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, January 2014, Vol.5(1), pp.74-89
    Description: Biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiments address ecosystem‐level consequences of species loss by comparing communities of high species richness with communities from which species have been gradually eliminated. BEF experiments originally started with microcosms in the laboratory and with grassland ecosystems. A new frontier in experimental BEF research is manipulating tree diversity in forest ecosystems, compelling researchers to think big and comprehensively. We present and discuss some of the major issues to be considered in the design of BEF experiments with trees and illustrate these with a new forest biodiversity experiment established in subtropical China (Xingangshan, Jiangxi Province) in 2009/2010. Using a pool of 40 tree species, extinction scenarios were simulated with tree richness levels of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 species on a total of 566 plots of 25·8 × 25·8 m each. The goal of this experiment is to estimate effects of tree and shrub species richness on carbon storage and soil erosion; therefore, the experiment was established on sloped terrain. The following important design choices were made: (i) establishing many small rather than fewer larger plots, (ii) using high planting density and random mixing of species rather than lower planting density and patchwise mixing of species, (iii) establishing a map of the initial ‘ecoscape’ to characterize site heterogeneity before the onset of biodiversity effects and (iv) manipulating tree species richness not only in random but also in trait‐oriented extinction scenarios. Data management and analysis are particularly challenging in BEF experiments with their hierarchical designs nesting individuals within‐species populations within plots within‐species compositions. Statistical analysis best proceeds by partitioning these random terms into fixed‐term contrasts, for example, species composition into contrasts for species richness and the presence of particular functional groups, which can then be tested against the remaining random variation among compositions. We conclude that forest BEF experiments provide exciting and timely research options. They especially require careful thinking to allow multiple disciplines to measure and analyse data jointly and effectively. Achieving specific research goals and synergy with previous experiments involves trade‐offs between different designs and requires manifold design decisions.
    Keywords: ‐Hina ; Ecoscape ; Genetic Diversity ; Planting Pattern ; Random Partitions Design ; Species Richness ; Trait‐Oriented Extinction Sequence
    ISSN: 2041-210X
    E-ISSN: 2041-210X
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, March 2019, Vol.56(3), pp.733-744
    Description: Forest ecosystem functioning generally benefits from higher tree species richness, but variation within richness levels is typically large. This is mostly due to the contrasting performances of communities with different compositions. Evidence‐based understanding of composition effects on forest productivity, as well as on multiple other functions will enable forest managers to focus on the selection of species that maximize functioning, rather than on diversity per se. We used a dataset of 30 ecosystem functions measured in stands with different species richness and composition in six European forest types. First, we quantified whether the compositions that maximize annual above‐ground wood production (productivity) generally also fulfil the multiple other ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). Then, we quantified the species identity effects and strength of interspecific interactions to identify the “best” and “worst” species composition for multifunctionality. Finally, we evaluated the real‐world frequency of occurrence of best and worst mixtures, using harmonized data from multiple national forest inventories. The most productive tree species combinations also tended to express relatively high multifunctionality, although we found a relatively wide range of compositions with high‐ or low‐average multifunctionality for the same level of productivity. Monocultures were distributed among the highest as well as the lowest performing compositions. The variation in functioning between compositions was generally driven by differences in the performance of the component species and, to a lesser extent, by particular interspecific interactions. Finally, we found that the most frequent species compositions in inventory data were monospecific stands and that the most common compositions showed below‐average multifunctionality and productivity. Synthesis and applications. Species identity and composition effects are essential to the development of high‐performing production systems, for instance in forestry and agriculture. They therefore deserve great attention in the analysis and design of functional biodiversity studies if the aim is to inform ecosystem management. A management focus on tree productivity does not necessarily trade‐off against other ecosystem functions; high productivity and multifunctionality can be combined with an informed selection of tree species and species combinations. Species identity and composition effects are essential to the development of high‐performing production systems, for instance in forestry and agriculture. They therefore deserve great attention in the analysis and design of functional biodiversity studies if the aim is to inform ecosystem management. A management focus on tree productivity does not necessarily trade‐off against other ecosystem functions; high productivity and multifunctionality can be combined with an informed selection of tree species and species combinations.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Multifunctionality ; Forest Management ; Forestry ; Fundiv Europe ; Overyielding ; Productivity ; Species Interactions ; Tree Species Mixtures
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, April 2019, Vol.131, pp.9-18
    Description: Functionally, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and saprotrophic (SAP) fungi belong to different guilds, and they play contrasting roles in forest ecosystem C-cycling. SAP fungi acquire C by degrading the soil organic material, which precipitates massive CO release, whereas, as plant symbionts, ECM fungi receive C from plants representing a channel of recently assimilated C to the soil. In this study, we aim to measure the amounts and identify the drivers of ECM and SAP fungal biomass in temperate forest topsoil. To this end, we measured ECM and SAP fungal biomass in mineral topsoils (0–12 cm depth) of different forest types (pure European beech, pure conifers, and mixed European beech with other broadleaf trees or conifers) in a range of about 800 km across Germany; moreover, we conducted multi-model inference analyses using variables for forest and vegetation, nutritive resources from soil and roots, and soil conditions as potential drivers of fungal biomass. Total fungal biomass ranged from 2.4 ± 0.3 mg g (soil dry weight) in pure European beech to 5.2 ± 0.8 mg g in pure conifer forests. Forest type, particularly the conifer presence, had a strong effect on SAP biomass, which ranged from a mean value of 1.5 ± 0.1 mg g in broadleaf to 3.3 ± 0.6 mg g in conifer forests. The European beech forests had the lowest ECM fungal biomass (1.1 ± 0.3 mg g ), but in mixtures with other broadleaf species, ECM biomass had the highest value (2.3 ± 0.2 mg g ) among other forest types. Resources from soil and roots such as N and C concentrations or C:N ratios were the most influential variables for both SAP and ECM biomass. Furthermore, SAP biomass were driven by factors related to forest structure and vegetation, whereas ECM biomass was mainly influenced by factors related to soil conditions, such as soil temperature, moisture, and pH. Our results show that we need to consider a complex of factors differentially affecting biomass of soil fungal functional groups and highlight the potential of forest management to control forest C-storage and the consequences of changes in soil fungal biomass.
    Keywords: Ergosterol ; Pure and Mixed Forest Stands ; Soil Fungi ; Soil Carbon Pools ; Topsoil ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages