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  • Gangaiah, Dharanesh  (14)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, December 2014, Vol.196(23), pp.4012-25
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid and a chronic limb ulceration syndrome in children. In humans, H. ducreyi is found in an abscess and overcomes a hostile environment to establish infection. To sense and respond to membrane stress, bacteria utilize two-component systems (TCSs) and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. We previously showed that activation of CpxRA, the only intact TCS in H. ducreyi, does not regulate homologues of envelope protein folding factors but does downregulate genes encoding envelope-localized proteins, including many virulence determinants. H. ducreyi also harbors a homologue of RpoE, which is the only ECF sigma factor in the organism. To potentially understand how H. ducreyi responds to membrane stress, here we defined RpoE-dependent genes using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). We identified 180 RpoE-dependent genes, of which 98% were upregulated; a major set of these genes encodes homologues of envelope maintenance and repair factors. We also identified and validated a putative RpoE promoter consensus sequence, which was enriched in the majority of RpoE-dependent targets. Comparison of RpoE-dependent genes to those controlled by CpxR showed that each transcription factor regulated a distinct set of genes. Given that RpoE activated a large number of genes encoding envelope maintenance and repair factors and that CpxRA represses genes encoding envelope-localized proteins, these data suggest that RpoE and CpxRA appear to play distinct yet complementary roles in regulating envelope homeostasis in H. ducreyi.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Stress, Physiological ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Cell Membrane -- Physiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Physiology ; Protein Kinases -- Metabolism ; Sigma Factor -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, 2013, Vol.195(15-16), p.3486(17)
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Chancroid – Causes of ; Gene Expression – Research ; Hemophilus Infections – Research ; Virulence (Microbiology) – Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, August 2013, Vol.195(15), pp.3486-502
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Genetics ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases -- Metabolism ; Protein Kinases -- Metabolism ; Repressor Proteins -- Metabolism ; Virulence Factors -- Biosynthesis
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 4
    In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2018, Vol. 67(11), pp.1768-1774
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is a major cause of skin ulcers in the tropics. On an endemic island, multiple strains of H. ducreyi cause infection, coinfections are common, and mass treatment with azithromycin did not exert selection pressure on the organism.
    Keywords: 〈Kwd〉 〈Italic Toggle="Yes"〉Haemophilus Ducreyi〈/Italic〉 〈/Kwd〉 ; Cutaneous Ulcers ; Single - Locus Typing ; Molecular Epidemiology
    ISSN: 1058-4838
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 01 December 2016, Vol.10(12), p.e0005259
    Description: BACKGROUND:Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1935-2727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, February 2013, Vol.81(2), pp.608-17
    Description: The carbon storage regulator A (CsrA) controls a wide variety of bacterial processes, including metabolism, adherence, stress responses, and virulence. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, harbors a homolog of csrA. Here, we generated an unmarked, in-frame deletion mutant of csrA to assess its contribution to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. In human inoculation experiments, the csrA mutant was partially attenuated for pustule formation compared to its parent. Deletion of csrA resulted in decreased adherence of H. ducreyi to human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF); Flp1 and Flp2, the determinants of H. ducreyi adherence to HFF cells, were downregulated in the csrA mutant. Compared to its parent, the csrA mutant had a significantly reduced ability to tolerate oxidative stress and heat shock. The enhanced sensitivity of the mutant to oxidative stress was more pronounced in bacteria grown to stationary phase compared to that in bacteria grown to mid-log phase. The csrA mutant also had a significant survival defect within human macrophages when the bacteria were grown to stationary phase but not to mid-log phase. Complementation in trans partially or fully restored the mutant phenotypes. These data suggest that CsrA contributes to virulence by multiple mechanisms and that these contributions may be more profound in bacterial cell populations that are not rapidly dividing in the human host.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Carbon -- Metabolism ; Chancroid -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, September 2017, Vol.85(9)
    Description: During infection, senses and responds to stress; such responses may be modulated by MisRS (NGO0177 and NGO0176), a two-component system that is a homolog of CpxRA. In , CpxRA senses and responds to envelope stress; CpxA is a sensor kinase/phosphatase for CpxR, a response regulator. When a mutant is grown in medium containing glucose, CpxR is phosphorylated by acetyl phosphate but cannot be dephosphorylated, resulting in constitutive activation. Kandler and coworkers (J. L. Kandler, C. L. Holley, J. L. Reimche, V. Dhulipala, J. T. Balthazar, A. Muszyński, R. W. Carlson, and W. M. Shafer, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60:4690-4700, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00823-16) showed that MisR (CpxR) is required for the maintenance of membrane integrity and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, suggesting a role in gonococcal survival Here, we evaluated the contributions of MisR and MisS (CpxA) to gonococcal infection in a murine model of cervicovaginal colonization and identified MisR-regulated genes using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The deletion of or severely reduced the capacity of to colonize mice or maintain infection over a 7-day period and reduced microbial fitness after exposure to heat shock. Compared to the wild type (WT), the inactivation of identified 157 differentially regulated genes, most of which encoded putative envelope proteins. The inactivation of identified 17 differentially regulated genes compared to the WT and 139 differentially regulated genes compared to the mutant, 111 of which overlapped those differentially expressed in the comparison of the WT versus the mutant. These data indicate that an intact MisRS system is required for gonococcal infection of mice. Provided the MisR is constitutively phosphorylated in the mutant, the data suggest that controlled but not constitutive activation is required for gonococcal infection in mice.
    Keywords: Cpxra ; Misrs ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ; RNA-Seq ; Envelope Stress ; Genes ; Infection ; Mice ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Gonorrhea -- Microbiology ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae -- Pathogenicity ; Protein Kinases -- Metabolism ; Reproductive Tract Infections -- Microbiology ; Virulence Factors -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, August 2014, Vol.82(8), pp.3492-502
    Description: (p)ppGpp responds to nutrient limitation through a global change in gene regulation patterns to increase survival. The stringent response has been implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic bacterial species. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, has homologs of both relA and spoT, which primarily synthesize and hydrolyze (p)ppGpp in Escherichia coli. We constructed relA and relA spoT deletion mutants to assess the contribution of (p)ppGpp to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. Both the relA single mutant and the relA spoT double mutant failed to synthesize (p)ppGpp, suggesting that relA is the primary synthetase of (p)ppGpp in H. ducreyi. Compared to the parent strain, the double mutant was partially attenuated for pustule formation in human volunteers. The double mutant had several phenotypes that favored attenuation, including increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. The increased sensitivity to oxidative stress could be complemented in trans. However, the double mutant also exhibited phenotypes that favored virulence. When grown to the mid-log phase, the double mutant was significantly more resistant than its parent to being taken up by human macrophages and exhibited increased transcription of lspB, which is involved in resistance to phagocytosis. Additionally, compared to the parent, the double mutant also exhibited prolonged survival in the stationary phase. In E. coli, overexpression of DksA compensates for the loss of (p)ppGpp; the H. ducreyi double mutant expressed higher transcript levels of dksA than the parent strain. These data suggest that the partial attenuation of the double mutant is likely the net result of multiple conflicting phenotypes.
    Keywords: Guanosine Pentaphosphate -- Deficiency ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Ligases -- Metabolism ; Pyrophosphatases -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, March 2018, Vol.86(3)
    Description: CpxRA is an envelope stress response system found in all members of the family ; CpxA has kinase activity for CpxR and phosphatase activity for phospho-CpxR, a transcription factor. CpxR also accepts phosphate groups from acetyl phosphate, a glucose metabolite. Activation of CpxR increases the transcription of genes encoding membrane repair and downregulates virulence determinants. We hypothesized that activation of CpxR could serve as an antimicrobial/antivirulence strategy and discovered compounds that activate CpxR in by inhibiting CpxA phosphatase activity. As a prelude to testing such compounds , here we constructed (in the presence of glucose, CpxR is activated because of a lack of CpxA phosphatase) and (system absent) deletion mutants of uropathogenic (UPEC) CFT073. By RNA sequencing, few transcriptional differences were noted between the mutant and its parent, but in the mutant, several UPEC virulence determinants were downregulated, including the and operons, and it exhibited reduced mannose-sensitive hemagglutination of guinea pig red blood cells In competition experiments with mice, both mutants were less fit than the parent in the urine, bladder, and kidney; these fitness defects were complemented in Unexpectedly, in single-strain challenges, only the mutant was attenuated for virulence in the kidney but not in the bladder or urine. For the mutant, this may be due to the preferential use of amino acids over glucose as a carbon source in the bladder and urine by UPEC. These studies suggest that CpxA phosphatase inhibitors may have some utility for treating complex urinary tract infections.
    Keywords: Escherichia Coli ; Upec ; Antivirulence ; Cpxa ; Cpxr ; Cpxra ; Uropathogenic ; Virulence Determinants ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Escherichia Coli Infections -- Microbiology ; Escherichia Coli Proteins -- Metabolism ; Protein Kinases -- Metabolism ; Urinary Tract Infections -- Microbiology ; Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, May 2016, Vol.84(5), pp.1514-1525
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid in adults and cutaneous ulcers in children. In humans, H. ducreyi resides in an abscess and must adapt to a variety of stresses. Previous studies (D. Gangaiah, M. Labandeira-Rey, X. Zhang, K. R. Fortney, S. Ellinger, B. Zwickl, B. Baker, Y. Liu, D. M. Janowicz, B. P. Katz, C. A. Brautigam, R. S. MunsonJr, E. J. Hansen, and S. M. Spinola, mBio 5:e01081-13, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01081-13) suggested that H. ducreyi encounters growth conditions in human lesions resembling those found in stationary phase. However, how H. ducreyi transcriptionally responds to stress during human infection is unknown. Here, we determined the H. ducreyi transcriptome in biopsy specimens of human lesions and compared it to the transcriptomes of bacteria grown to mid-log, transition, and stationary phases. Multidimensional scaling showed that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth. Compared to the inoculum (mid-log-phase bacteria), H. ducreyi harvested from pustules differentially expressed ∼93 genes, of which 62 were upregulated. The upregulated genes encode homologs of proteins involved in nutrient transport, alternative carbon pathways (l-ascorbate utilization and metabolism), growth arrest response, heat shock response, DNA recombination, and anaerobiosis. H. ducreyi upregulated few genes (hgbA, flp-tad, and lspB-lspA2) encoding virulence determinants required for human infection. Most genes regulated by CpxRA, RpoE, Hfq, (p)ppGpp, and DksA, which control the expression of virulence determinants and adaptation to a variety of stresses, were not differentially expressed in vivo, suggesting that these systems are cycling on and off during infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth and that adaptation to nutrient stress and anaerobiosis is crucial for H. ducreyi survival in humans.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Stress, Physiological ; Carbon -- Metabolism ; Chancroid -- Microbiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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