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  • Gillmore, J.D.  (121)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 04 November 2010, Vol.468(7320), pp.93-7
    Description: Accumulation of amyloid fibrils in the viscera and connective tissues causes systemic amyloidosis, which is responsible for about one in a thousand deaths in developed countries. Localized amyloid can also have serious consequences; for example, cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an important cause of haemorrhagic stroke. The clinical presentations of amyloidosis are extremely diverse and the diagnosis is rarely made before significant organ damage is present. There is therefore a major unmet need for therapy that safely promotes the clearance of established amyloid deposits. Over 20 different amyloid fibril proteins are responsible for different forms of clinically significant amyloidosis and treatments that substantially reduce the abundance of the respective amyloid fibril precursor proteins can arrest amyloid accumulation. Unfortunately, control of fibril-protein production is not possible in some forms of amyloidosis and in others it is often slow and hazardous. There is no therapy that directly targets amyloid deposits for enhanced clearance. However, all amyloid deposits contain the normal, non-fibrillar plasma glycoprotein, serum amyloid P component (SAP). Here we show that administration of anti-human-SAP antibodies to mice with amyloid deposits containing human SAP triggers a potent, complement-dependent, macrophage-derived giant cell reaction that swiftly removes massive visceral amyloid deposits without adverse effects. Anti-SAP-antibody treatment is clinically feasible because circulating human SAP can be depleted in patients by the bis-d-proline compound CPHPC, thereby enabling injected anti-SAP antibodies to reach residual SAP in the amyloid deposits. The unprecedented capacity of this novel combined therapy to eliminate amyloid deposits should be applicable to all forms of systemic and local amyloidosis.
    Keywords: Amyloid -- Drug Effects ; Amyloidosis -- Prevention & Control ; Antibodies -- Immunology ; Serum Amyloid P-Component -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 25 June 2016, Vol.387(10038), pp.2641-2654
    Description: Tissue deposition of protein fibrils causes a group of rare diseases called systemic amyloidoses. This Seminar focuses on changes in their epidemiology, the current approach to diagnosis, and advances in treatment. Systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common of these conditions, but wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is increasingly being diagnosed. Typing of amyloid fibrils, a critical determinant of therapy, has improved with the wide availability of laser capture and mass spectrometry from fixed histological tissue sections. Specific and accurate evaluation of cardiac amyloidosis is now possible using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac repurposing of bone scintigraphy tracers. Survival in AL amyloidosis has improved markedly as novel chemotherapy agents have become available, but challenges remain in advanced disease. Early diagnosis, a key to better outcomes, still remains elusive. Broadening the amyloid-specific therapeutic landscape to include RNA inhibitors, fibril formation stabilisers and inhibitors, and immunotherapeutic targeting of amyloid deposits holds promise to transform outcomes in systemic amyloidoses.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 28 January 2014, Vol.111(4), pp.1539-44
    Description: The Ser52Pro variant of transthyretin (TTR) produces aggressive, highly penetrant, autosomal-dominant systemic amyloidosis in persons heterozygous for the causative mutation. Together with a minor quantity of full-length wild-type and variant TTR, the main component of the ex vivo fibrils was the residue 49-127 fragment of the TTR variant, the portion of the TTR sequence that previously has been reported to be the principal constituent of type A, cardiac amyloid fibrils formed from wild-type TTR and other TTR variants [Bergstrom J, et al. (2005) J Pathol 206(2):224-232]. This specific truncation of Ser52Pro TTR was generated readily in vitro by limited proteolysis. In physiological conditions and under agitation the residue 49-127 proteolytic fragment rapidly and completely self-aggregates into typical amyloid fibrils. The remarkable susceptibility to such cleavage is likely caused by localized destabilization of the β-turn linking strands C and D caused by loss of the wild-type hydrogen-bonding network between the side chains of residues Ser52, Glu54, Ser50, and a water molecule, as revealed by the high-resolution crystallographic structure of Ser52Pro TTR. We thus provide a structural basis for the recently hypothesized, crucial pathogenic role of proteolytic cleavage in TTR amyloid fibrillogenesis. Binding of the natural ligands thyroxine or retinol-binding protein (RBP) by Ser52Pro variant TTR stabilizes the native tetrameric assembly, but neither protected the variant from proteolysis. However, binding of RBP, but not thyroxine, inhibited subsequent fibrillogenesis.
    Keywords: Misfolding ; Protein Aggregation ; Amyloid -- Metabolism ; Prealbumin -- Metabolism ; Proline -- Metabolism ; Serine -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 09 October 2018, Vol.72(15), pp.1881-1881
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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  • 5
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2012, Vol.366(24), pp.2276-2283
    Description: We describe a kindred with slowly progressive gastrointestinal symptoms and autonomic neuropathy caused by autosomal dominant, hereditary systemic amyloidosis. The amyloid consists of Asp76Asn variant β 2 -microglobulin. Unlike patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis caused by sustained high plasma concentrations of wild-type β 2 -microglobulin, the affected members of this kindred had normal renal function and normal circulating β 2 -microglobulin values. The Asp76Asn β 2 -microglobulin variant was thermodynamically unstable and remarkably fibrillogenic in vitro under physiological conditions. Previous studies of β 2 -microglobulin aggregation have not shown such amyloidogenicity for single-residue substitutions. Comprehensive biophysical characterization of the β 2 -microglobulin variant, including its 1.40-Å, three-dimensional structure, should allow further elucidation of fibrillogenesis and protein misfolding. A kindred with familial amyloidosis was found to have bowel and autonomic dysfunction and the sicca syndrome from an aspartate-to-asparagine alteration at amino acid 76 of β2-microglobulin. Unexpectedly, this alteration promoted fibrillogenesis and tissue deposition. Summary We describe a kindred with slowly progressive gastrointestinal symptoms and autonomic neuropathy caused by autosomal dominant, hereditary systemic amyloidosis. The amyloid consists of Asp76Asn variant β2-microglobulin. Unlike patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis caused by sustained high plasma concentrations of wild-type β2-microglobulin, the affected members of this kindred had normal renal function and normal circulating β2-microglobulin values. The Asp76Asn β2-microglobulin variant was thermodynamically unstable and remarkably fibrillogenic in vitro under physiological conditions. Previous studies of β2-microglobulin aggregation have not shown such amyloidogenicity for single-residue substitutions. Comprehensive biophysical characterization of the β . . .
    Keywords: Amyloidosis, Familial -- Genetics ; Beta 2-Microglobulin -- Genetics;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 6
    In: Circulation, 2015, Vol.132(16), pp.1570-1579
    Description: BACKGROUND—: The prognosis and treatment of the 2 main types of cardiac amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, are substantially influenced by cardiac involvement. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is a reference standard for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis, but its potential for stratifying risk is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS—: Two hundred fifty prospectively recruited subjects, 122 patients with ATTR amyloid, 9 asymptomatic mutation carriers, and 119 patients with AL amyloidosis, underwent LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 24±13 months. LGE was performed with phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) and without (magnitude only). These were compared with extracellular volume measured with T1 mapping. PSIR was superior to magnitude-only inversion recovery LGE because PSIR always nulled the tissue (blood or myocardium) with the longest T1 (least gadolinium). LGE was classified into 3 patterns: none, subendocardial, and transmural, which were associated with increasing amyloid burden as defined by extracellular volume (P〈0.0001), with transitions from none to subendocardial LGE at an extracellular volume of 0.40 to 0.43 (AL) and 0.39 to 0.40 (ATTR) and to transmural at 0.48 to 0.55 (AL) and 0.47 to 0.59 (ATTR). Sixty-seven patients (27%) died. Transmural LGE predicted death (hazard ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–13.7; P〈0.0001) and remained independent after adjustment for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, ejection fraction, stroke volume index, E/E′, and left ventricular mass index (hazard ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–13.1; P〈0.05). CONCLUSIONS—: There is a continuum of cardiac involvement in systemic AL and ATTR amyloidosis. Transmural LGE is determined reliably by PSIR and represents advanced cardiac amyloidosis. The PSIR technique provides incremental information on outcome even after adjustment for known prognostic factors.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0009-7322
    E-ISSN: 15244539
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  • 7
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2015, Vol.373(12), pp.1106-1114
    Description: Background The amyloid fibril deposits that cause systemic amyloidosis always contain the nonfibrillar normal plasma protein, serum amyloid P component (SAP). The drug (R)-1-[6-[(R)-2-carboxy-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-6-oxo-hexanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (CPHPC) efficiently depletes SAP from the plasma but leaves some SAP in amyloid deposits that can be specifically targeted by therapeutic IgG anti-SAP antibodies. In murine amyloid A type amyloidosis, the binding of these antibodies to the residual SAP in amyloid deposits activates complement and triggers the rapid clearance of amyloid by macrophage-derived multinucleated giant cells. Methods We conducted an open-label, single-dose-escalation, phase 1 trial involving 15 patients with systemic amyloidosis. After first using CPHPC to deplete circulating SAP, we infused a fully humanized monoclonal IgG1 anti-SAP antibody. Patients with clinical evidence of cardiac involvement were not included for safety reasons. Organ function, inflammatory markers, and amyloid load were monitored. Results There were no serious adverse events. Infusion reactions occurred in some of the initial recipients of larger doses of antibody; reactions were reduced by slowing the infusion rate for later patients. At 6 weeks, patients who had received a sufficient dose of antibody in relation to their amyloid load had decreased liver stiffness, as measured with the use of transient elastography. These patients also had improvements in liver function in association with a substantial reduction in hepatic amyloid load, as shown by means of SAP scintigraphy and measurement of extracellular volume by magnetic resonance imaging. A reduction in kidney amyloid load and shrinkage of an amyloid-laden lymph node were also observed. Conclusions Treatment with CPHPC followed by an anti-SAP antibody safely triggered clearance of amyloid deposits from the liver and some other tissues. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01777243 .) A two-step process, in which circulating levels of amyloid P are reduced and then anti–serum amyloid P antibody is given to activate macrophage clearance mechanisms of tissue deposits, appears to reduce amyloid deposits in liver and some other organs. In systemic amyloidosis, the extracellular deposition of normally soluble plasma proteins as insoluble amyloid fibrils damages the structure and function of tissues and organs. 1 Current treatment consists of support or replacement of failing organs and measures to reduce the abundance of the amyloid fibril precursor protein. 1 , 2 A sufficient reduction of precursor supply arrests the accumulation of amyloid and can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, amyloid regression is very slow and often does not occur at all, in contrast to the usually swift clearance of other extracellular debris and efficient tissue remodeling — for example, after trauma. At least 65% . . .
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Arthritis & Rheumatism, April 2013, Vol.65(4), pp.1116-1121
    Description: AA amyloidosis is a life-threatening complication of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPFS), which are otherwise often compatible with normal life expectancy. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics, presentation, natural history, and response to treatment in 46 patients who had been referred for evaluation at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre. Disease activity was monitored by serial measurement of serum amyloid A. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum creatinine and albumin levels, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria from 24-hour urine collections. The amyloid load was measured by serum amyloid P scintigraphy. Twenty-four patients had familial Mediterranean fever, 12 patients had tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, 6 patients had cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, and 4 patients had mevalonate kinase deficiency. The median age at onset of HPFS was 5 years; median age at presentation with AA amyloidosis was 38 years. Diagnosis of an HPFS had not been considered prior to presentation with AA amyloidosis in 23 patients (50%). Eleven patients (24%) had end-stage renal failure (ESRF) at presentation; of these, 3 had received transplants prior to referral. A further 13 patients developed ESRF over the followup period, with 10 undergoing renal transplantation. The median time to progression to ESRF from onset of AA amyloidosis was 3.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2-8), with a median time to transplant of 4 years (IQR 3-6). Eleven patients (24%) died. The median survival in the entire cohort was 19 years from diagnosis of AA amyloidosis. Of the 37 patients who were treated successfully, or in whom at least partial suppression of the underlying HPFS was achieved, 17 (46%) showed amyloid regression, 14 (38%) showed a stable amyloid load, and 2 (5%) showed increased amyloid deposition over the followup period. AA amyloidosis remains a challenging and serious late complication of HPFS; however, outcomes are excellent when HPFS is diagnosed early enough to allow effective treatment, thus preventing or retarding further amyloid deposition and organ damage.
    Keywords: Amyloidosis -- Etiology ; Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases -- Complications ; Serum Amyloid A Protein -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0004-3591
    E-ISSN: 1529-0131
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 14 September 2018, Vol.293(37), pp.14192-14199
    Description: Systemic amyloidosis is a usually fatal disease caused by extracellular accumulation of abnormal protein fibers, amyloid fibrils, derived by misfolding and aggregation of soluble globular plasma protein precursors. Both WT and genetic variants of the normal plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) form amyloid, but neither the misfolding leading to fibrillogenesis nor the anatomical localization of TTR amyloid deposition are understood. We have previously shown that, under physiological conditions, trypsin cleaves human TTR in a mechano-enzymatic mechanism that generates abundant amyloid fibrils In sharp contrast, the widely used model of denaturation and aggregation of TTR by prolonged exposure to pH 4.0 yields almost no clearly defined amyloid fibrils. However, the exclusive duodenal location of trypsin means that this enzyme cannot contribute to systemic extracellular TTR amyloid deposition Here, we therefore conducted a bioinformatics search for systemically active tryptic proteases with appropriate tissue distribution, which unexpectedly identified plasmin as the leading candidate. We confirmed that plasmin, just as trypsin, selectively cleaves human TTR between residues 48 and 49 under physiological conditions Truncated and full-length protomers are then released from the native homotetramer and rapidly aggregate into abundant fibrils indistinguishable from TTR amyloid. Our findings suggest that physiological fibrinolysis is likely to play a critical role in TTR amyloid formation Identification of this surprising intersection between two hitherto unrelated pathways opens new avenues for elucidating the mechanisms of TTR amyloidosis, for seeking susceptibility risk factors, and for therapeutic innovation.
    Keywords: Amyloid ; Amyloid Fibrillogenesis ; Amyloidogenesis ; Fibril ; Mechano-Enzymatic Mechanism ; Protease ; Protein Aggregation ; Systemic Amyloidosis ; Tissue Plasminogen Activator (Tpa) ; Transthyretin ; Amyloidosis -- Metabolism ; Plasminogen -- Metabolism ; Prealbumin -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219258
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 25 July 2017, Vol.70(4), pp.466-477
    Description: Cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping, is emerging as a reference standard for diagnosis and characterization of cardiac amyloidosis. The authors used CMR with extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measurement to characterize cardiac involvement in relation to outcome in ATTR. Subjects comprised 263 patients with cardiac ATTR corroborated by grade 2 to 3 Tc-DPD ( Tc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid) cardiac uptake, 17 with suspected cardiac ATTR (grade 1 Tc-DPD), and 12 asymptomatic individuals with amyloidogenic transthyretin (TTR) mutations. Fifty patients with cardiac light-chain (AL) amyloidosis acted as disease comparators. Unlike cardiac AL amyloidosis, asymmetrical septal left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was present in 79% of patients with ATTR (70% sigmoid septum and 30% reverse septal contour), whereas symmetrical LVH was present in 18%, and 3% had no LVH. In patients with cardiac amyloidosis, the pattern of LGE was always typical for amyloidosis (29% subendocardial, 71% transmural), including right ventricular LGE (96%). During follow-up (19 ± 14 months), 65 patients died. ECV independently correlated with mortality and remained independent after adjustment for age, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, ejection fraction, E/E′, and left ventricular mass (hazard ratio: 1.164; 95% confidence interval: 1.066 to 1.271; p 〈 0.01). Asymmetrical hypertrophy, traditionally associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, was the commonest pattern of ventricular remodeling in ATTR. LGE imaging was typical in all patients with cardiac ATTR. ECV correlated with amyloid burden and was an independent prognostic factor for survival in this cohort of patients.
    Keywords: Attr ; Extracellular Volume Fraction ; Late Gadolinium Enhancement ; Left Ventricular Hypertrophy ; N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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