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  • Grün, R.
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 26 October 2018, Vol.362(6413)
    Description: Our original claim, based on three independent numerical dating methods, of an age of ~185,000 years for the Misliya-1 modern human hemi-maxilla from Mount Carmel, Israel, is little affected by discounting uranium-series dating of adhering crusts. It confirms a much earlier out-of-Africa expansion than previously suggested by the considerably younger (90,000 to 120,000 years) Skhul/Qafzeh hominins.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Fossils
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2017, Vol.546(7657), p.293
    Description: The timing and location of the emergence of our species and of associated behavioural changes are crucial for our understanding of human evolution. The earliest fossil attributed to a modern form of Homo sapiens comes from eastern Africa and is approximately 195 thousand years old1,2, therefore the emergence of modern human biology is commonly placed at around 200 thousand years ago3,4. The earliest Middle Stone Age assemblages come from eastern and southern Africa but date much earlier5-7. Here we report the ages, determined by thermoluminescence dating, of fire-heated flint artefacts obtained from new excavations at the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, which are directly associated with newly discovered remains of H. sapiens8. A weighted average age places these Middle Stone Age artefacts and fossils at 315 34 thousand years ago. Support is obtained through the recalculated uranium series with electron spin resonance date of 286 32 thousand years ago for a tooth from the Irhoud 3 hominin mandible. These ages are also consistent with the faunal and microfaunal9 assemblages and almost double the previous age estimates for the lower part of the deposits10,11. The north African site of Jebel Irhoud contains one of the earliest directly dated Middle Stone Age assemblages, and its associated human remains are the oldest reported for H. sapiens. The emergence of our species and of the Middle Stone Age appear to be close in time, and these data suggest a larger scale, potentially pan-African, origin for both.
    Keywords: Morocco ; Artifacts ; Fossils ; Origins ; Uranium ; Electron Paramagnetic Resonance ; Emergence ; Stone Age ; Series (Mathematics) ; Age ; Evolution ; Dating ; Uranium ; Chronology ; Mandible ; Evolution ; Resonance ; Fossils ; Artefacts ; Uranium ; Thermoluminescence ; Teeth ; Stone ; Estimates ; Electron Spin ; Spin Resonance ; Thermoluminescence ; Teeth ; Fossils ; Human Behavior ; Biology ; Stone Age ; Evolution ; Fossils ; Paleontology ; Hominids ; Time Measurement;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(9), p.e24024
    Description: In recent years the Later Stone Age has been redated to a much deeper time depth than previously thought. At the same time, human remains from this time period are scarce in Africa, and even rarer in West Africa. The Iwo Eleru burial is one of the few human skeletal remains associated with Later Stone Age artifacts in that region with a proposed Pleistocene date. We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology. ; A 3-D geometric morphometric analysis of cranial landmarks and semilandmarks was conducted using a large comparative fossil and modern human sample. The measurements were collected in the form of three dimensional coordinates and processed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Principal components, canonical variates, Mahalanobis D and Procrustes distance analyses were performed. The results were further visualized by comparing specimen and mean configurations. Results point to a morphological similarity with late archaic African specimens dating to the Late Pleistocene. A long bone cortical fragment was made available for U-series analysis in order to re-date the specimen. The results (∼11.7–16.3 ka) support a terminal Pleistocene chronology for the Iwo Eleru burial as was also suggested by the original radiocarbon dating results and by stratigraphic evidence. ; Our findings are in accordance with suggestions of deep population substructure in Africa and a complex evolutionary process for the origin of modern humans. They further highlight the dearth of hominin finds from West Africa, and underscore our real lack of knowledge of human evolution in that region.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Social And Behavioral Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International
    Description: This paper describes a personal journey in ESR dating and gives some insights of the progress made over 35 years in ESR dating of tooth enamel. When I started, samples were irradiated with four additive dose steps of 5, 10, 15 and 20 krad and the linear extrapolation yielded the dose value. An assumed dose rate of 100 mrad/a yielded the age of the sample. Since then I learned that one actually has to measure the dose rate. I also learned that the dose response can be described by a single saturating function, or perhaps two, and that errors can be appropriately calculated. Rather than having a single anisotropic CO radical, tooth enamel consists of two anisotropic CO radicals and two isotropic CO radicals, one stable, one unstable. Also, the dose response shows spatial differences in the production of these different radicals in response to beta and gamma rays. Then there is the problem of uranium uptake over time. We solved this by combining ESR and U-series analyses. We can even measure appropriate beta attenuation factors including sequential laser ablation U-series analyses. Even better, all analyses can be carried out on small enamel fragments, which can be glued back into their original position with little to no visible damage. Still, when using the most sophisticated dose rate calculations, they're often close to 1000 μGy a .
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    E-ISSN: 1873-4553
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, 2011, Vol.26(77), pp.151-174
    Description: Segundo a Wikipédia, o Brasil passou por 97 escândalos políticos e financeiros na década de 1990. Na primeira década do novo século, foram registrados 125 eventos "dessa natureza". Essa catalogação parece comprovar a crença popular de que "o Brasil não tem jeito". A tarefa aqui é mostrar que os escândalos podem ser alguma coisa maior e mais complexa do que a simples manifestação de descalabros. Nessa linha, sugerimos que os escândalos podem ser utilmente tratados como uma forma de ação, de controle e também, por vezes, um mecanismo de mudança social. Por meio deles, a sociedade abandona, reitera, altera ou cria normas de convívio e de legitimação.
    Keywords: Théorie des domaines; Sociologie économique; Sociologie politique; Scandales; Theory of fields; Economic sociology; Political sociology; Scandals; Teoria dos campos; Sociologia econômica; Sociologia política; Escândalos;
    ISSN: 0102-6909
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary Geochronology, 2012, Vol.7, pp.1-1
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 1871-1014
    E-ISSN: 1878-0350
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, 2014, Vol.29(86), pp.57-78
    Description: The article shows that the study of contemporary political mythologies is a fundamental clue for scrutinizing the transformations in the morphology of current Brazilian society, as well in the more general sphere of the new stratifications, and the reactions to them, as in the more localized space of the cultural agents of the society. In this sense, the article analyzes the social construction of the couple PIG-Mensalao, looking for relevant markers of transformations. One needs to understand the society's structure of capitals from the course and conclusion of the struggles dividing it. The author calls attention for the concreteness and relevance of the cultural disputes and the artifacts produced in those confrontations. Adapted from the source document.
    Keywords: Couples ; Brazil ; Social Constructionism ; Political Sociology/Interactions; Sociology of Political Systems, Politics, & Power ; Mensalao Pro-Coup Press Party (Pig) Political Mythologies Cultural Struggles ; Article;
    ISSN: 0102-6909
    E-ISSN: 18069053
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: Portuguese
    In: Mana, 01 August 2013, Vol.19(2), pp.303-340
    Description: O texto pretende mostrar como a terminologia usada nos diversos conflitos profissionais do Brasil contemporâneo revela uma nova estrutura de distribuição dos capitais simbólicos no país. Esta novidade se reflete nas condições de possibilidade de governos oriundos da esquerda no espectro político e que praticam políticas econômicas e sociais tidas como heterodoxas. Para tanto, acompanha alguns usos de expressões como "alto e baixo cleros" e "lição de casa" para mostrar os efeitos cruzados das nominações em que são utilizados e das reações a elas. Especialmente, lança mão de alguns marcadores culturais e eventos significativos dos dez anos que se seguiram à primeira vitória presidencial de Lula, e tenta explicá-los e extrair algumas consequências do seu transcorrer para a análise cultural do período.
    Keywords: Anthropology ; "Mensalão" ; "Pig" ; Conflito Cultural ; Sociologia Política Durkheimiana ; Guerra Cultural ; "Mensalão" ; "Pig" ; Cultural Conflict ; Durkheimian Political Sociology ; Cultural Warfare ; Anthropology ; Sociology & Social History
    ISSN: 1678-4944
    ISSN: 01049313
    E-ISSN: 1678-4944
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  • 9
    Language: Portuguese
    In: Tempo Social, 01 June 2013, Vol.25(1), pp.179-213
    Description: Os "mercados" constituíram-se numa das maiores "caixas-pretas" da atualidade. A eles atribuem-se poderes demiúrgicos que, de maneira misteriosa, determinam os destinos das sociedades contemporâneas. O presente texto vale-se de algumas peculiaridades da situação brasileira recente, em especial das formas como a crise foi aqui enfrentada, para sugerir um caminho analítico capaz de objetivar a zona do espaço social que chamamos de mercado e mostrar alguns de seus desenvolvimentos recentes, de modo a tornar essa realidade compreensível sociologicamente. Nesse sentido, a exploração do "caso brasileiro" é excepcionalmente elucidativa por mostrar uma cronologia que nuança consideravelmente a até então taked for granted autonomia do mundo financeiro.
    Keywords: Sociologia Das Finanças ; Crise Financeira ; Política de Juros ; Poder ; Determinismo Financeiro ; Sociology & Social History
    ISSN: 1809-4554
    ISSN: 01032070
    E-ISSN: 1809-4554
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Sociedade e Estado, Vol.31(2), pp.403-431
    Description: Resumo O mundo das finanças costuma ser visto como a esfera mais racional da sociedade, na qual só funcionam e são admitidas considerações práticas de ordem econômica. O intuito deste artigo é de, a partir de alterações recentes da economia brasileira, mostrar como esse espaço está, ele também, baseado num conjunto de pressupostos culturais. Mudando esses pressupostos, muda também o conjunto de possibilidades abertas para a ação e a reflexão econômica, com consequências importantes também na esfera política, a ponto de podermos afirmar a existência de um novo modo de dominação. O material empírico para o desenvolvimento dessa hipótese vem prioritariamente das transformações do campo das finanças no Brasil recente e a tentativa de demonstração apresenta algumas nuances dos sistemas classificatórios que regem o campo do poder da contemporaneidade nacional. As transformações, e as ações dos atores que nelas estão implicados, desvelam também um sistema classificatório robusto, surgido fundamentalmente com a redemocratização do Brasil, cuja pregnância espero conseguir demonstrar no texto.
    Keywords: Cultural Wars ; High/Low Clergy and Homework ; Pension Funds ; Plotting Press Party (Partido Da Imprensa Golpista - Pig) ; Perk Monthly Instalment ("Mensalão") ; Sociology & Social History ; History & Archaeology
    ISSN: 0102-6992
    ISSN: 19805462
    E-ISSN: 19805462
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