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  • Grun, R  (186)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Dados: Revista de Ciências Sociais, 01 September 2011, Vol.54(3), pp.307-354
    Description: This article intends to demonstrate that a good sociological approach to the "financial crisis" is to view the theme as a dispute between different social representations, rather than proposing an alternative explanation to the phenomenon (simply different from or complementary to those presented by the economists). I draw on information and assemble chronologies based on the situation in the United States, and particularly that of Brazil. I then suggest that there is not "a crisis" in the singular, but various narratives vying for primacy, and that this social game, first and foremost, provides the basis for the distributive conflict inherent to any capitalist society.
    Keywords: Financial Crisis ; Social Representation ; Cultural Warfare ; Sociology of Finances ; Financialization
    ISSN: 1678-4588
    ISSN: 00115258
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2010, Vol.466(7303), p.189
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological–History ; Animals–Chemistry ; Archaeology–History ; Climate–Instrumentation ; Emigration and Immigration–Instrumentation ; Fossils–Instrumentation ; Geologic Sediments–Instrumentation ; History, Ancient–Instrumentation ; Hominidae–Instrumentation ; Humans–Instrumentation ; Magnetics–Instrumentation ; Paleontology–Instrumentation ; Seasons–Instrumentation ; Technology–Instrumentation ; Temperature–Instrumentation ; United Kingdom–Instrumentation;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
    Source: Nature Publishing Group
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  • 3
    In: Nature, 2017, Vol.546(7657), p.293
    Description: The timing and location of the emergence of our species and of associated behavioural changes are crucial for our understanding of human evolution. The earliest fossil attributed to a modern form of Homo sapiens comes from eastern Africa and is approximately 195 thousand years old1,2, therefore the emergence of modern human biology is commonly placed at around 200 thousand years ago3,4. The earliest Middle Stone Age assemblages come from eastern and southern Africa but date much earlier5-7. Here we report the ages, determined by thermoluminescence dating, of fire-heated flint artefacts obtained from new excavations at the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, which are directly associated with newly discovered remains of H. sapiens8. A weighted average age places these Middle Stone Age artefacts and fossils at 315 34 thousand years ago. Support is obtained through the recalculated uranium series with electron spin resonance date of 286 32 thousand years ago for a tooth from the Irhoud 3 hominin mandible. These ages are also consistent with the faunal and microfaunal9 assemblages and almost double the previous age estimates for the lower part of the deposits10,11. The north African site of Jebel Irhoud contains one of the earliest directly dated Middle Stone Age assemblages, and its associated human remains are the oldest reported for H. sapiens. The emergence of our species and of the Middle Stone Age appear to be close in time, and these data suggest a larger scale, potentially pan-African, origin for both.
    Keywords: Morocco ; Artifacts ; Fossils ; Origins ; Uranium ; Electron Paramagnetic Resonance ; Emergence ; Stone Age ; Series (Mathematics) ; Age ; Evolution ; Dating ; Uranium ; Chronology ; Mandible ; Evolution ; Resonance ; Fossils ; Artefacts ; Uranium ; Thermoluminescence ; Teeth ; Stone ; Estimates ; Electron Spin ; Spin Resonance ; Thermoluminescence ; Teeth ; Fossils ; Human Behavior ; Biology ; Stone Age ; Evolution ; Fossils ; Paleontology ; Hominids ; Time Measurement;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(9), p.e24024
    Description: In recent years the Later Stone Age has been redated to a much deeper time depth than previously thought. At the same time, human remains from this time period are scarce in Africa, and even rarer in West Africa. The Iwo Eleru burial is one of the few human skeletal remains associated with Later Stone Age artifacts in that region with a proposed Pleistocene date. We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology. ; A 3-D geometric morphometric analysis of cranial landmarks and semilandmarks was conducted using a large comparative fossil and modern human sample. The measurements were collected in the form of three dimensional coordinates and processed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Principal components, canonical variates, Mahalanobis D and Procrustes distance analyses were performed. The results were further visualized by comparing specimen and mean configurations. Results point to a morphological similarity with late archaic African specimens dating to the Late Pleistocene. A long bone cortical fragment was made available for U-series analysis in order to re-date the specimen. The results (∼11.7–16.3 ka) support a terminal Pleistocene chronology for the Iwo Eleru burial as was also suggested by the original radiocarbon dating results and by stratigraphic evidence. ; Our findings are in accordance with suggestions of deep population substructure in Africa and a complex evolutionary process for the origin of modern humans. They further highlight the dearth of hominin finds from West Africa, and underscore our real lack of knowledge of human evolution in that region.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Social And Behavioral Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: Portuguese
    In: Tempo Social, 01 June 2013, Vol.25(1), pp.179-213
    Description: Os "mercados" constituíram-se numa das maiores "caixas-pretas" da atualidade. A eles atribuem-se poderes demiúrgicos que, de maneira misteriosa, determinam os destinos das sociedades contemporâneas. O presente texto vale-se de algumas peculiaridades da situação brasileira recente, em especial das formas como a crise foi aqui enfrentada, para sugerir um caminho analítico capaz de objetivar a zona do espaço social que chamamos de mercado e mostrar alguns de seus desenvolvimentos recentes, de modo a tornar essa realidade compreensível sociologicamente. Nesse sentido, a exploração do "caso brasileiro" é excepcionalmente elucidativa por mostrar uma cronologia que nuança consideravelmente a até então taked for granted autonomia do mundo financeiro.
    Keywords: Sociology ; Sociologia Das Finanças ; Crise Financeira ; Política de Juros ; Poder ; Determinismo Financeiro ; Sociology of Finance ; Financial Crisis ; Interest Rate Policies ; Field of Power ; Financial Determinism ; Sociology & Social History
    ISSN: 1809-4554
    ISSN: 01032070
    E-ISSN: 1809-4554
    Source: SciELO
    Source: SciELO Brazil
    Source: SciELO Complete
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Human Evolution, August 2017, Vol.109, pp.22-29
    Description: Laser ablation U-series dating results on a human cranial bone fragment from Apidima, on the western cost of the Mani Peninsula, Southern Greece, indicate a minimum age of 160,000 years. The dated cranial fragment belongs to Apidima 2, which preserves the facial skeleton and a large part of the braincase, lacking the occipital bone. The morphology of the preserved regions of the cranium, and especially that of the facial skeleton, indicates that the fossil belongs to the Neanderthal clade. The dating of the fossil at a minimum age of 160,000 years shows that most of the Neanderthal traits were already present in the MIS 6 and perhaps earlier. This makes Apidima 2 the earliest known fossil with a clear Neanderthal facial morphology. Together with the nearby younger Neanderthal specimens from Lakonis and Kalamakia, the Apidima crania are of crucial importance for the evolution of Neanderthals in the area during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. It can be expected that systematic direct dating of the other human fossils from this area will elucidate our understanding of Neanderthal evolution and demise.
    Keywords: Apidima ; Greece ; Neanderthal ; U-Series Dating ; Taxonomy ; Anthropology ; Biology
    ISSN: 0047-2484
    E-ISSN: 1095-8606
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 15 December 2014, Vol.416, pp.150-167
    Description: Over the past decade, we have applied laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry U-series analysis to a large number of bones and teeth. The method is fast and provides high-resolution data of U-series isotopes, which give insights into the complexity of uranium migration into, within and out of bones. In this paper, we present our laser ablation approach in detail, from the experimental set up, to data reduction and uranium diffusion modelling. Laser ablation analysis can now be applied with minimum damage. Complete diffusion data sets can be obtained by laser drilling which leaves a hole of around 200 μm in diameter and 1–2 mm depth. If the natural U-diffusion follows a simple single-stage process, valuable age information can be obtained. In other cases, highly complex U-migrations have been observed, which make any age assessment impossible. Two examples from Wadjak and Callao illustrate the potential of nearly non-destructive laser ablation U-series analysis of human skeletal tissues. The results demonstrate the physical presence of modern humans in south-east Asia at a time when our species just started to migrate into Europe.
    Keywords: U-Series Dating ; Laser Ablation Analysis ; Human Fossils ; Wajak ; Callao ; Garba III Melka Kunture ; Geology
    ISSN: 0031-0182
    E-ISSN: 1872-616X
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  • 8
    In: Nature, 2016, Vol.529(7585), p.208
    Description: Sulawesi is the largest and oldest island within Wallacea, a vast zone of oceanic islands separating continental Asia from the Pleistocene landmass of Australia and Papua (Sahul). By one million years ago an unknown hominin lineage had colonized Flores immediately to the south (1), and by about 50 thousand years ago, modern humans (Homo sapiens) had crossed to Sahul (2,3). On the basis of position, oceanic currents and biogeographical context, Sulawesi probably played a pivotal part in these dispersals (4). Uranium-series dating of speleothem deposits associated with rock art in the limestone karst region of Maros in southwest Sulawesi has revealed that humans were living on the island at least 40 thousand years ago (ref. 5). Here we report new excavations at Talepu in the Walanae Basin northeast of Maros, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna (Bubalus sp., Stegodon and Celebochoerus) have been recovered from stratified deposits that accumulated from before 200 thousand years ago until about 100 thousand years ago. Our findings suggest that Sulawesi, like Flores, was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins, the ancestral origins and taxonomic status of which remain elusive.
    Keywords: Uranium Series Disequilibrium Dating – Usage ; Uranium – Research ; Uranium – Health Aspects ; Hominids – Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 15 September 2017, Vol.213, pp.475-501
    Description: Molluscs incorporate negligible uranium into their skeleton while they are living, with any uranium uptake occurring post-mortem. As such, closed-system U-series dating of molluscs is unlikely to provide reliable age constraints for marine deposits. Even the application of open-system U-series modelling is challenging, because uranium uptake and loss histories can affect time-integrated uranium distributions and are difficult to constrain. We investigate the chemical and isotopic distribution of uranium in fossil (giant clams) from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (128–116 ka) and MIS 11 (424–374 ka) reefs at Huon Peninsula in Papua New Guinea. The large size of the clams enables detailed chemical and isotopic mapping of uranium using LA-ICPMS and LA-MC-ICPMS techniques. Within each fossil specimen, marked differences in uranium concentrations are observed across the three growth zones (outer, inner, hinge), with the outer and hinge zones being relatively enriched. In MIS 5e and MIS 11 , the outer and hinge zones contain approximately 1 ppm and 5 ppm uranium respectively. In addition to uptake of uranium, loss of uranium appears prevalent, especially in the MIS 11 specimens. The effect of uranium loss is to elevate measured [ Th/ U] values with little effect on [ U/ U] values. Closed-system age estimates are on average 50% too young for the MIS 5e and 25% too young for the MIS 11 . A complex, multi-stage uptake and loss history is interpreted for the fossil and we demonstrate that they cannot provide independent, reliable geochronological controls on the timing of past reef growth at Huon Peninsula.
    Keywords: Tridacna ; Uranium Series Dating ; Aragonite ; Huon Peninsula ; Molluscs ; MC-Icpms ; Mis 11 ; Mis 5e ; Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Human Evolution, 2011, Vol.60(5), pp.597-604
    Description: We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors).
    Keywords: C-14 ; Luminescence ; U-Series Dating ; Anthropology ; Biology
    ISSN: 0047-2484
    E-ISSN: 1095-8606
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