Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), January 2014, Vol.59(1), pp.24-34
    Description: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) entry involves at least four cellular factors, including CD81, the scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB-1), occludin (OCLN), and claudin-1 (CLDN1). In addition, CLDN6 and CLDN9 have been shown to substitute for CLDN1 as HCV entry factors in human nonliver cells. We examined the role of different CLDN proteins during HCV entry by using cell lines expressing either predominantly CLDN1 (Huh-7.5) or CLDN6 (HuH6). Huh-7.5 cells were susceptible to all tested HCV isolates, whereas HuH6 cells were only permissive to some viral strains. Silencing of CLDN6 in HuH6 cells revealed that these cells are infected in a CLDN6-dependent fashion, and ectopic expression of CLDN1 or CLDN6 in 293T cells lacking endogenous CLDN expression confirmed that only some HCV strains efficiently use CLDN6 for infection. CLDN1-specific neutralizing antibodies (Abs) fully abrogated infection of Huh-7.5 cells by isolates that use CLDN1 only, whereas viruses with broad CLDN tropism were only partially inhibited by these Abs. Importantly, infection by these latter strains in the presence of anti-CLDN1 Ab was further reduced by silencing CLDN6, suggesting that viruses with broad CLDN usage escape CLDN1-specific Abs by utilization of CLDN6. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of HCV entry factors in liver biopsies of HCV patients infected with different genotype and with variable degree of liver fibrosis were determined. Uniformly high levels of CD81, SCARB-1, OCLN, and CLDN1 mRNA were detected. In contrast, abundance of CLDN6 mRNA was highly variable between patients. These findings highlight differential CLDN usage by HCV isolates, which may evolve based on variable expression of CLDN proteins in human liver cells. Broad CLDN tropism may facilitate viral escape from CLDN1-specific therapeutic strategies.
    Keywords: Viral Tropism ; Virus Internalization ; Claudin-1 -- Metabolism ; Claudins -- Metabolism ; Hepacivirus -- Physiology
    E-ISSN: 1527-3350
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    In: Hepatology, January 2014, Vol.59(1), pp.24-34
    Description: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) entry involves at least four cellular factors, including CD81, the scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB‐1), occludin (OCLN), and claudin‐1 (CLDN1). In addition, CLDN6 and CLDN9 have been shown to substitute for CLDN1 as HCV entry factors in human nonliver cells. We examined the role of different CLDN proteins during HCV entry by using cell lines expressing either predominantly CLDN1 (Huh‐7.5) or CLDN6 (HuH6). Huh‐7.5 cells were susceptible to all tested HCV isolates, whereas HuH6 cells were only permissive to some viral strains. Silencing of CLDN6 in HuH6 cells revealed that these cells are infected in a CLDN6‐dependent fashion, and ectopic expression of CLDN1 or CLDN6 in 293T cells lacking endogenous CLDN expression confirmed that only some HCV strains efficiently use CLDN6 for infection. CLDN1‐specific neutralizing antibodies (Abs) fully abrogated infection of Huh‐7.5 cells by isolates that use CLDN1 only, whereas viruses with broad CLDN tropism were only partially inhibited by these Abs. Importantly, infection by these latter strains in the presence of anti‐CLDN1 Ab was further reduced by silencing CLDN6, suggesting that viruses with broad CLDN usage escape CLDN1‐specific Abs by utilization of CLDN6. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of HCV entry factors in liver biopsies of HCV patients infected with different genotype and with variable degree of liver fibrosis were determined. Uniformly high levels of CD81, SCARB‐1, OCLN, and CLDN1 mRNA were detected. In contrast, abundance of CLDN6 mRNA was highly variable between patients. : These findings highlight differential CLDN usage by HCV isolates, which may evolve based on variable expression of CLDN proteins in human liver cells. Broad CLDN tropism may facilitate viral escape from CLDN1‐specific therapeutic strategies. (H 2014;58:24–34)
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0270-9139
    E-ISSN: 1527-3350
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 2012, Vol.8(7), p.e1002829
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected around 160 million individuals. Current therapies have limited efficacy and are fraught with side effects. To identify cellular HCV dependency factors, possible therapeutic targets, we manipulated signaling cascades with pathway-specific inhibitors. Using this approach we identified the MAPK/ERK regulated, cytosolic, calcium-dependent, group IVA phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A) as a novel HCV dependency factor. Inhibition of PLA2G4A activity reduced core protein abundance at lipid droplets, core envelopment and secretion of particles. Moreover, released particles displayed aberrant protein composition and were 100-fold less infectious. Exogenous addition of arachidonic acid, the cleavage product of PLA2G4A-catalyzed lipolysis, but not other related poly-unsaturated fatty acids restored infectivity. Strikingly, production of infectious Dengue virus, a relative of HCV, was also dependent on PLA2G4A. These results highlight previously unrecognized parallels in the assembly pathways of these human pathogens, and define PLA2G4A-dependent lipolysis as crucial prerequisite for production of highly infectious viral progeny. ; The human genome encodes more than 30 phospholipase A2s. These enzymes cleave fatty acids at the C2 atom of phosphoglycerides and thus modulate membrane properties. Among all PLA2s only PLA2G4A, which is recruited to perinuclear membranes by Ca and activated by extracellular stimuli via the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, specifically cleaves lipids with arachidonic acid. Metabolism of arachidonic acid yields prostaglandins and leukotriens, important lipid mediators of inflammation. We show that inhibition of PLA2G4A produces aberrant HCV particles and that infectivity is rescued by addition of arachidonic acid. Our results suggest that a specific lipid (arachidonic acid) is essential for production of highly infectious HCV progeny, likely by creating a membrane environment conducive for efficient incorporation of crucial host and viral factors into the lipid envelope of nascent particles. Strikingly, PLA2G4A is also essential for production of highly infectious Dengue Virus (DENV) particles but not for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). These observations argue that HCV and DENV which unlike VSV produce particles at intracellular membranes usurp a common host factor (PLA2G4A) for assembly of highly infectious progeny. These findings open new perspectives for antiviral intervention and highlight thus far unrecognized parallels in the assembly pathway of HCV and DENV.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Cell Biology ; Gastroenterology And Hepatology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, February 2014, Vol.88(3), pp.1433-46
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) predominantly infects human hepatocytes, although extrahepatic virus reservoirs are being discussed. Infection of cells is initiated via cell-free and direct cell-to-cell transmission routes. Cell type-specific determinants of HCV entry and RNA replication have been reported. Moreover, several host factors required for synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins from liver cells, in part expressed in tissue-specific fashion, have been implicated in HCV assembly. However, the minimal cell type-specific requirements for HCV assembly have remained elusive. Here we report that production of HCV trans-complemented particles (HCVTCP) from nonliver cells depends on ectopic expression of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). For efficient virus production by full-length HCV genomes, microRNA 122 (miR-122)-mediated enhancement of RNA replication is additionally required. Typical properties of cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc) particles from ApoE-expressing nonliver cells are comparable to those of virions derived from human hepatoma cells, although specific infectivity of virions is modestly reduced. Thus, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and apolipoprotein C1 (ApoC1), previously implicated in HCV assembly, are dispensable for production of infectious HCV. In the absence of ApoE, release of core protein from infected cells is reduced, and production of extracellular as well as intracellular infectivity is ablated. Since envelopment of capsids was not impaired, we conclude that ApoE acts after capsid envelopment but prior to secretion of infectious HCV. Remarkably, the lack of ApoE also abrogated direct HCV cell-to-cell transmission. These findings highlight ApoE as a host factor codetermining HCV tissue tropism due to its involvement in a late assembly step and viral cell-to-cell transmission.
    Keywords: Viral Tropism ; Virus Assembly ; Apolipoproteins E -- Metabolism ; Hepacivirus -- Physiology ; Hepatitis C -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, November 2014, Vol.88(21), pp.12644-55
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles associate with lipoproteins and infect cells by using at least four cell entry factors. These factors include scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), CD81, claudin 1 (CLDN1), and occludin (OCLN). Little is known about specific functions of individual host factors during HCV cell entry and viral domains that mediate interactions with these factors. Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) within viral envelope protein 2 (E2) is involved in the usage of SR-BI and conceals the viral CD81 binding site. Moreover, deletion of this domain alters the density of virions. We compared lipoprotein interaction, surface attachment, receptor usage, and cell entry between wild-type HCV and a viral mutant lacking this domain. Deletion of HVR1 did not affect CD81, CLDN1, and OCLN usage. However, unlike wild-type HCV, HVR1-deleted viruses were not neutralized by antibodies and small molecules targeting SR-BI. Nevertheless, modulation of SR-BI cell surface expression altered the infection efficiencies of both viruses to similar levels. Analysis of affinity-purified virions revealed comparable levels of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) incorporation into viruses with or without HVR1. However, ApoE incorporated into these viruses was differentially recognized by ApoE-specific antibodies. Thus, SR-BI has at least two functions during cell entry. One of them can be neutralized by SR-BI-targeting molecules, and it is critical only for wild-type HCV. The other one is important for both viruses but apparently is not inactivated by the SR-BI binding antibodies and small molecules evaluated here. In addition, HVR1 modulates the conformation and/or epitope exposure of virus particle-associated ApoE. HCV cell entry is SR-BI dependent irrespective of the presence or absence of HVR1. Moreover, this domain modulates the properties of ApoE on the surface of virus particles. These findings have implications for the development of SR-BI-targeting antivirals. Furthermore, these findings highlight separable functions of SR-BI during HCV cell entry and reveal a novel role of HVR1 for the properties of virus-associated lipoproteins.
    Keywords: Virus Internalization ; Claudin-1 -- Metabolism ; Hepacivirus -- Physiology ; Occludin -- Metabolism ; Scavenger Receptors, Class B -- Metabolism ; Tetraspanin 28 -- Metabolism ; Viral Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    In: Hepatology, January 2016, Vol.63(1), pp.49-62
    Description: To explore mechanisms of hepatitis C viral (HCV) replication we screened a compound library including licensed drugs. Flunarizine, a diphenylmethylpiperazine used to treat migraine, inhibited HCV cell entry and in a genotype‐dependent fashion. Analysis of mosaic viruses between susceptible and resistant strains revealed that E1 and E2 glycoproteins confer susceptibility to flunarizine. Time of addition experiments and single particle tracking of HCV demonstrated that flunarizine specifically prevents membrane fusion. Related phenothiazines and pimozide also inhibited HCV infection and preferentially targeted HCV genotype 2 viruses. However, phenothiazines and pimozide exhibited improved genotype coverage including the difficult to treat genotype 3. Flunarizine‐resistant HCV carried mutations within the alleged fusion peptide and displayed cross‐resistance to these compounds, indicating that these drugs have a common mode of action. : These observations reveal novel details about HCV membrane fusion; moreover, flunarizine and related compounds represent first‐in‐class HCV fusion inhibitors that merit consideration for repurposing as a cost‐effective component of HCV combination therapies. (H 2016;63:49–62)
    Keywords: Replication ; Membrane Fusion ; Migraine ; Headache ; Phenothiazine ; Glycoproteins ; Hepatitis C ; Genotypes ; Infection ; Mutation ; Cross-Resistance ; Drugs ; Hepatitis C Virus ; Replication ; Microorganisms & Parasites;
    ISSN: 0270-9139
    E-ISSN: 1527-3350
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages