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  • Hildebrandt, A  (594)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Inorganic chemistry, 07 November 2011, Vol.50(21), pp.10623-32
    Description: A series of 2,5-di- and 2,3,4,5-tetraferrocenyl-substituted thiophenes, furans, and pyrroles were synthesized using the Negishi C,C cross-coupling protocol. The electronic and electrochemical properties of these compounds were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV), and in situ UV-vis/NIR spectroscopy. The molecular structures of 2,5-diferrocenyl furan and 2,3,4,5-tetraferrocenyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrrole in the solid state are discussed. The ferrocenyls could sequentially be oxidized giving two or four reversible responses for the appropriate di- or tetraferrocenyl-substituted heterocyclic molecules. The observed ΔE°' values range between 186 and 450 mV. The NIR measurements confirm electronic communication as intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) absorptions were found in the corresponding mono- and in case of the tetraferrocenyl compounds also in the dicationic species. All compounds, except tetraferrocenyl thiophene (a class I system), were classified as class II systems according to Robin and Day. They show a linear relationship between ΔE°' and the IVCT oscillator strength f which could be shown for the first time in organometallic chemistry. This was possible because the series of molecules exhibit analogous geometries and hence, similar electrostatic properties. This correlation was confirmed by electro- and spectro-electrochemical measurements. Within these studies a new approach for the estimation of the effective electron transfer distances r(ab) is discussed.
    Keywords: Charge Transfer -- Analysis ; Electrostatic Interactions -- Measurement ; Furans -- Chemical Properties ; Furans -- Atomic Properties ; Furans -- Electric Properties ; Near-infrared Spectroscopy -- Usage ; Pyrroles -- Chemical Properties ; Pyrroles -- Atomic Properties ; Pyrroles -- Electric Properties ; Thiophene -- Chemical Properties ; Thiophene -- Atomic Properties ; Thiophene -- Electric Properties;
    ISSN: 00201669
    E-ISSN: 1520-510X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Individual Differences, October 2016, Vol.101, pp.484-484
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.162 Byline: A. Hildebrandt, H. Nowparast Rostami, G. Ouyang, C. Zhou, W. Sommer
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0191-8869
    E-ISSN: 1873-3549
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Political Studies, October 2015, Vol.63(4), pp.852-869
    Description: This article investigates why homosexual acts are still banned in 77 countries. It extends the current state of research by focusing on the religious roots of these bans. Previous studies have analysed the influence of Islam on prohibitions of same-sex sexual acts but produced contradictory findings. Moreover, the influence of the second world religion that condemns homosexuality in its scriptures – Christianity – has largely been ignored. This article shows that countries with a Muslim tradition tend to criminalise both male and female homosexuality, while predominantly Christian societies tend to prohibit only sex between men. However, the influence of the Christian tradition depends on the modernity of a country: the more modern a Christian society, the less influence traditional Christian sexual ethics have on legislation governing same-sex sexuality. This is particularly true for countries with a Protestant tradition.
    Keywords: Lgbt Politics ; Social Movement Policy Success ; Morality Policies ; Government ; Political Science
    ISSN: 0032-3217
    E-ISSN: 1467-9248
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Organometallics, 10/28/2013, Vol.32(20), pp.5640-5653
    ISSN: 0276-7333
    E-ISSN: 1520-6041
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Psychology and Aging, 2011, Vol.26(3), pp.701-715
    Description: Face cognition is considered a specific human ability, clearly differentiable from general cognitive functioning. Its specificity is primarily supported by cognitive-experimental and neuroimaging research, but recently also from an individual differences perspective. However, no comprehensive behavioral data are available, which would allow estimating lifespan changes of the covariance structure of face-cognition abilities and general cognitive functioning as well as age-differences in face cognition after accounting for interindividual variability in general cognition. The present study aimed to fill this gap. In an age-heterogeneous (18–82 years) sample of 448 adults, we found no factorial dedifferentiation between face cognition and general cognition. Age-related differences in face memory were still salient after taking into account changes in general cognitive functioning. Face cognition thus remains a specific human ability compared with general cognition, even until old age. We discuss implications for models of cognitive aging and suggest that it is necessary to include more explicitly special social abilities in those models.
    Keywords: Face Cognition ; Abstract Cognition ; Adult Lifespan
    ISSN: 0882-7974
    E-ISSN: 1939-1498
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Psychology and Aging, 2013, Vol.28(1), pp.243-248
    Description: We investigated the specificity of face compared with object cognition from an individual differences and aging perspective by determining the amount of overlap between these abilities at the level of latent constructs across age. Confirmatory factor analytic models tested the specificity of speed and accuracy measures for face and object cognition ( N = 448; 18 to 88 years). Accuracy measures were distinguishable and slightly dedifferentiated across age, which was not due to loss of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. There was no face specificity for speed measures. These results support the specificity of face cognition from differential and developmental perspective only for performance accuracy.
    Keywords: Face Cognition ; Object Cognition ; Individual Differences ; Age Differences
    ISSN: 0882-7974
    E-ISSN: 1939-1498
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Individual Differences, April 2014, Vol.60, pp.S36-S36
    Description: Taxonomic models of emotional abilities have focused on receptive facets. Latent variable modeling of facial emotion expression as an ability construct has been neglected so far. We developed a task battery including multiple methods for assessing the ability to display six main emotions, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, disgust, and happiness. Video recordings of the emotion displays were analyzed for 245 participants. Following automatic expression coding, elaborate scoring and systematic model testing we established a measurement model of productive emotional abilities. The structure that best described the observed data controlled for face plasticity and showed emotion-specific factors that are nested under a general expressivity factor. Individual differences in Action Unit networks characterizing specific emotions will be considered. Structural models revealed a positive relationship of facial expressivity with receptive abilities and extraversion. Results will be discussed in the context of recent debates in emotion research and models of emotional abilities.
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0191-8869
    E-ISSN: 1873-3549
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Individual Differences, October 2016, Vol.101, pp.509-509
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.273 Byline: G. Recio, A. Hildebrandt, W. Sommer, O. Wilhelm
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0191-8869
    E-ISSN: 1873-3549
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Individual Differences, October 2016, Vol.101, pp.487-487
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.175 Byline: L. Kaltwasser, A. Hildebrandt, O. Wilhelm, W. Sommer
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0191-8869
    E-ISSN: 1873-3549
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 November 2015, Vol.316, pp.52-61
    Description: The development of environmental system models is challenging because of different disciplinary philosophical approaches to uncertainty in modelling of the terrestrial hydrosphere and ecosphere. We use pattern-oriented modelling to assess model structural adequacy and to select alternative model structures within the hierarchy of a model of flood-groundwater–vegetation interactions. We varied the equation structure of two key model components, flood tolerance and seasonal leaf shedding, and tested how well the model structures reproduced a set of observed patterns: (i) three species coexistence, (ii) species-specific access to groundwater, and (iii) species-specific ability to tolerate flood disturbances. We assessed (a) the role of flood frequency in biomass regulation for modelling of three coexisting species sharing the same water resources, and (b) the effect of alternative process and equation structures on the deviation of hydrological variables (transpiration, groundwater table) from average conditions. Only model structures that explicitly considered the functional relationship between flood events and biomass regulation were able to reproduce the coexistence pattern and the two secondary patterns (ii and iii). The different coexistence mechanisms had little effect on the average transpiration rates and water table depths. However, shallow and deep average groundwater tables, caused by low and high transpiration rates, were modelled more frequently with model structures that intentionally ignored species-specific phenological cycles rather than models which incorporated them. Our findings indicate that, amongst all tested model structures, the most complex one is most plausible and can explain the observed patterns in an environment controlled by the interplay between periods of water deficit and flood disturbance. It reproduced the three observed ecological patterns and enhanced the general understanding of groundwater-dependent ecosystems along ephemeral rivers.
    Keywords: Pattern-Oriented Modelling (POM) ; Species Coexistence ; Groundwater-Dependent Ecosystem ; Ecohydrology ; Model Structural Adequacy ; Kuiseb River ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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