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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 September 2018, Vol.634, pp.305-315
    Description: The leaching of P from the upper 20 cm of forest topsoils influences nutrient (re-)cycling and the redistribution of available phosphate and organic P forms. However, the effective leaching of colloids and associated P forms from forest topsoils was so far sparsely investigated. We demonstrated through irrigation experiments with undisturbed mesocosm soil columns, that significant proportions of P leached from acidic forest topsoils were associated with natural colloids. These colloids had a maximum size of 400 nm. By means of Field-flow fractionation the leached soil colloids could be separated into three size fractions. The size and composition was comparable to colloids present in acidic forest streams known from literature. The composition of leached colloids of the three size classes was dominated by organic carbon. Furthermore, these colloids contained large concentrations of P which amounted between 12 and 91% of the totally leached P depending on the type of the forest soil. The fraction of other elements leached with colloids ranged between 1% and 25% (Fe: 1–25%; C : 3–17%; Al: 〈4%; Si, Ca, Mn: all 〈2%). The proportion of colloid–associated P decreased with increasing total P leaching. Leaching of total and colloid-associated P from the forest surface soil did not increase with increasing bulk soil P concentrations and were also not related to tree species. The present study highlighted that colloid-facilitated P leaching can be of higher relevance for the P leaching from forest surface soils than dissolved P and should not be neglected in soil water flux studies.
    Keywords: Colloids ; Forest Soil ; Leaching ; Mesocosm ; Nanoparticles ; Phosphorus ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2016, Vol.179(4), pp.443-453
    Description: Phosphorus (P) is essential for sustainable forest growth, yet the impact of anthropogenic impacts on P leaching losses from forest soils is hardly known. We conducted an irrigation experiment with 128 mesocosms from three forest sites representing a gradient of resin extractable P of the A‐horizon. On each site we selected a and a managed subsite. We simulated ambient rain (AR), anthropogenic nitrogen input (NI) of 100 kg (ha · a) and forest liming (FL) with a dolomite input of 0.3 Mg (ha · a). Soil solution was extracted from the organic layer, 10 cm depth and 20 cm depth of the mesocosms, and analyzed for molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) and molybdate unreactive phosphorus (MUP). Additionally, we separated colloids from the soil solution using Asymmetric Field Flow Fractionation for assessing the colloidal fraction of total element concentrations. NI increased MRP and MUP concentrations for all plots with one exception, while FL decreased MRP and MUP with the exception of another plot. While the irrigation treatments had little impact on the P‐richest site, MRP and MUP concentrations changed strongly at the poorer sites. The colloidal fraction of P in the soil solution equaled 38–47% of the total P load. Nitrogen input and liming also affected the Fe, Al, Ca, and Corg contents of the colloidal fraction.
    Keywords: Phosphorus ; Mesocosm ; Random Forest Modelling ; Molybdate ; Soil Colloids
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2016, Vol.179(4), pp.425-438
    Description: Understanding and quantification of phosphorus (P) fluxes are key requirements for predictions of future forest ecosystems changes as well as for transferring lessons learned from natural ecosystems to croplands and plantations. This review summarizes and evaluates the recent knowledge on mechanisms, magnitude, and relevance by which dissolved and colloidal inorganic and organic P forms can be translocated within or exported from forest ecosystems. Attention is paid to hydrological pathways of P losses at the soil profile and landscape scales, and the subsequent influence of P on aquatic ecosystems. New (unpublished) data from the German Priority Program 1685 “” were added to provide up‐to‐date flux‐based information. Nitrogen (N) additions increase the release of water‐transportable P forms. Most P found in percolates and pore waters belongs to the so‐called dissolved organic P (DOP) fractions, rich in orthophosphate‐monoesters and also containing some orthophosphate‐diesters. Total solution P concentrations range from ca. 1 to 400 µg P L, with large variations among forest stands. Recent sophisticated analyses revealed that large portions of the DOP in forest stream water can comprise natural nanoparticles and fine colloids which under extreme conditions may account for 40–100% of the P losses. Their translocation within preferential flow passes may be rapid, mediated by storm events. The potential total P loss through leaching into subsoils and with streams was found to be less than 50 mg P m a, suggesting effects on ecosystems at centennial to millennium scale. All current data are based on selected snapshots only. Quantitative measurements of P fluxes in temperate forest systems are nearly absent in the literature, probably due to main research focus on the C and N cycles. Therefore, we lack complete ecosystem‐based assessments of dissolved and colloidal P fluxes within and from temperate forest systems.
    Keywords: Forest Ecosystem ; Phosphorus ; Fluxes ; Soil ; Processes ; Hydrology
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 4
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