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  • Ince, Turker  (38)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied Soft Computing Journal, 2011, Vol.11(2), pp.2334-2347
    Description: The need for solving multi-modal optimization problems in high dimensions is pervasive in many practical applications. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is attracting an ever-growing attention and more than ever it has found many application areas for many challenging optimization problems. It is, however, a known fact that PSO has a severe drawback in the update of its global best ( ) particle, which has a crucial role of guiding the rest of the swarm. In this paper, we propose two efficient solutions to remedy this problem using a stochastic approximation (SA) technique. In the first approach, is updated (moved) with respect to a global estimation of the gradient of the underlying (error) surface or function and hence can avoid getting trapped into a local optimum. The second approach is based on the formation of an alternative or artificial global best particle, the so-called , which can replace the native particle for a better guidance, the decision of which is held by a fair competition between the two. For this purpose we use simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) for its low cost. Since SPSA is applied only to the (not to the entire swarm), both approaches result thus in a negligible overhead cost for the entire PSO process. Both approaches are shown to significantly improve the performance of PSO over a wide range of non-linear functions, especially if SPSA parameters are well selected to fit the problem at hand. A major finding of the paper is that even if the SPSA parameters are not tuned well, results of SA-driven (SAD) PSO are still better than the best of PSO and SPSA. Since the problem of poor update persists in the recently proposed extension of PSO, called multi-dimensional PSO (MD-PSO), both approaches are also integrated into MD-PSO and tested over a set of unsupervised data clustering applications. As in the basic PSO application, experimental results show that the proposed approaches significantly improved the quality of the MD-PSO clustering as measured by a validity index function. Furthermore, the proposed approaches are generic as they can be used with other PSO variants and applicable to a wide range of problems.
    Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization ; Stochastic Approximation ; Multi-Dimensional Search ; Gradient Descent ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 1568-4946
    E-ISSN: 18729681
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biomedical Informatics, June, 2014, Vol.49, p.16(16)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2014.02.005 Byline: Serkan Kiranyaz, Turker Ince, Morteza Zabihi, Dilek Ince Abstract: The illustration of the proposed EEG classification system (top). The illustration of the evolution process of a CNBC (bottom). Display Omitted Article History: Received 29 June 2013; Accepted 3 February 2014
    Keywords: Electroencephalography
    ISSN: 1532-0464
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Neurocomputing, 08 February 2017, Vol.224, pp.142-154
    Description: There are well-known limitations and drawbacks on the performance and robustness of the feed-forward, fully-connected Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), or the so-called Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs). In this study we shall address them by Generalized Operational Perceptrons (GOPs) that consist of neurons with distinct (non-)linear operators to achieve a generalized model of the biological neurons and ultimately a superior diversity. We modified the conventional back-propagation (BP) to train GOPs and furthermore, proposed Progressive Operational Perceptrons (POPs) to achieve self-organized and depth-adaptive GOPs according to the learning problem. The most crucial property of the POPs is their ability to simultaneously search for the optimal operator set and train each layer individually. The final POP is, therefore, formed layer by layer and in this paper we shall show that this ability enables POPs with minimal network depth to attack the most challenging learning problems that cannot be learned by conventional ANNs even with a deeper and significantly complex configuration. Experimental results show that POPs can scale up very well with the problem size and can have the potential to achieve a superior generalization performance on real benchmark problems with a significant gain.
    Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks ; Multi-Layer Perceptrons ; Progressive Operational Perceptrons ; Diversity ; Scalability ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 0925-2312
    E-ISSN: 1872-8286
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Expert Systems With Applications, 2012, Vol.39(5), pp.4710-4717
    Description: In this paper, a robust radial basis function (RBF) network based classifier is proposed for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The proposed feature extraction process utilizes the covariance matrix elements, the H/α/A decomposition based features combined with the backscattering power (span), and the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based texture features, which are projected onto a lower dimensional feature space using principal components analysis. For the classifier training, both conventional backpropagation (BP) and multidimensional particle swarm optimization (MD-PSO) based dynamic clustering are explored. By combining complete polarimetric covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition based pixel values with textural information (contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity) in the feature set, and employing automated evolutionary RBF classifier for the pattern recognition unit, the overall classification performance is shown to be significantly improved. An experimental study is performed using the fully polarimetric San Francisco Bay and Flevoland data sets acquired by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) at L-band to evaluate the performance of the proposed classifier. Classification results (in terms of confusion matrix, overall accuracy and classification map) compared with the major state of the art algorithms demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed RBF network classifier.
    Keywords: Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar ; Radial Basis Function Network ; Particle Swarm Optimization ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 0957-4174
    E-ISSN: 1873-6793
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B (Cybernetics), August 2012, Vol.42(4), pp.1169-1186
    Description: Terrain classification over polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has been an active research field where several features and classifiers have been proposed up to date. However, some key questions, e.g., 1) how to select certain features so as to achieve highest discrimination over certain classes?, 2) how to combine them in the most effective way?, 3) which distance metric to apply?, 4) how to find the optimal classifier configuration for the classification problem in hand?, 5) how to scale/adapt the classifier if large number of classes/features are present?, and finally, 6) how to train the classifier efficiently to maximize the classification accuracy?, still remain unanswered. In this paper, we propose a collective network of (evolutionary) binary classifier (CNBC) framework to address all these problems and to achieve high classification performance. The CNBC framework adapts a "Divide and Conquer" type approach by allocating several NBCs to discriminate each class and performs evolutionary search to find the optimal BC in each NBC. In such an (incremental) evolution session, the CNBC body can further dynamically adapt itself with each new incoming class/feature set without a full-scale retraining or reconfiguration. Both visual and numerical performance evaluations of the proposed framework over two benchmark SAR images demonstrate its superiority and a significant performance gap against several major classifiers in this field.
    Keywords: Neurons ; Scattering ; Covariance Matrix ; Training ; Matrix Decomposition ; Indexes ; Measurement ; Evolutionary Classifiers ; Multidimensional Particle Swarm Optimization (MD-Pso) ; Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ; Sciences (General) ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1083-4419
    E-ISSN: 1941-0492
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Expert Systems With Applications, 2011, Vol.38(4), pp.3220-3226
    Description: This paper presents a personalized long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) classification framework, which addresses the problem within a long-term ECG signal, known as register, recorded from an individual patient. Due to the massive amount of ECG beats in a register, visual inspection is quite difficult and cumbersome, if not impossible. Therefore, the proposed system helps professionals to quickly and accurately diagnose any latent heart disease by examining only the representative beats (the so-called master key-beats) each of which is automatically extracted from a time frame of homogeneous (similar) beats. We tested the system on a benchmark database where beats of each register have been manually labeled by cardiologists. The selection of the right master key-beats is the key factor for achieving a highly accurate classification and thus we used -means clustering in order to find out (near-) optimal number of key-beats as well as the master key-beats. The classification process produced results that were consistent with the manual labels with over 99% average accuracy, which basically shows the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed system over massive data (feature) collections in high dimensions.
    Keywords: Personalized Long-Term ECG Classification ; Exhaustive K-Means Clustering ; Holter Registers ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 0957-4174
    E-ISSN: 1873-6793
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, March 2016, Vol.63(3), pp.664-675
    Description: Goal: This paper presents a fast and accurate patient-specific electrocardiogram (ECG) classification and monitoring system. Methods: An adaptive implementation of 1-D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is inherently used to fuse the two major blocks of the ECG classification into a single learning body: feature extraction and classification. Therefore, for each patient, an individual and simple CNN will be trained by using relatively small common and patient-specific training data, and thus, such patient-specific feature extraction ability can further improve the classification performance. Since this also negates the necessity to extract hand-crafted manual features, once a dedicated CNN is trained for a particular patient, it can solely be used to classify possibly long ECG data stream in a fast and accurate manner or alternatively, such a solution can conveniently be used for real-time ECG monitoring and early alert system on a light-weight wearable device. Results: The results over the MIT-BIH arrhythmia benchmark database demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves a superior classification performance than most of the state-of-the-art methods for the detection of ventricular ectopic beats and supraventricular ectopic beats. Conclusion: Besides the speed and computational efficiency achieved, once a dedicated CNN is trained for an individual patient, it can solely be used to classify his/her long ECG records such as Holter registers in a fast and accurate manner. Significance: Due to its simple and parameter invariant nature, the proposed system is highly generic, and, thus, applicable to any ECG dataset.
    Keywords: Electrocardiography ; Neurons ; Feature Extraction ; Kernel ; Databases ; Training ; Monitoring ; Patient-Specific ECG Classification ; Convolutional Neural Networks ; Real-Time Heart Monitoring ; Medicine ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0018-9294
    E-ISSN: 1558-2531
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biomedical Informatics, June 2014, Vol.49, pp.16-31
    Description: The illustration of the proposed EEG classification system (top). The illustration of the evolution process of a CNBC (bottom). This paper presents a novel systematic approach for patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography (EEG). The goal is to extract the seizure sections with a high accuracy to ease the Neurologist’s burden of inspecting such long-term EEG data. We aim to achieve this using the minimum feedback from the Neurologist. To accomplish this, we use the majority of the state-of-the-art features proposed in this domain for evolving a collective network of binary classifiers (CNBC) using multi-dimensional particle swarm optimization (MD PSO). Multiple CNBCs are then used to form a CNBC ensemble (CNBC-E), which aggregates epileptic seizure frames from the classification map of each CNBC in order to maximize the sensitivity rate. Finally, a morphological filter forms the final epileptic segments while filtering out the outliers in the form of classification noise. The proposed system is fully generic, which does not require any information about the patient such as the list of relevant EEG channels. The results of the classification experiments, which are performed over the benchmark CHB-MIT scalp long-term EEG database show that the proposed system can achieve all the aforementioned objectives and exhibits a significantly superior performance compared to several other state-of-the-art methods. Using a limited training dataset that is formed by less than 2 min of seizure and 24 min of non-seizure data on the average taken from the early 25% section of the EEG record of each patient, the proposed system establishes an average sensitivity rate above 89% along with an average specificity rate above 93% over the test set.
    Keywords: EEG Classification ; Seizure Event Detection ; Evolutionary Classifiers ; Morphological Filtering ; Medicine ; Engineering ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1532-0464
    E-ISSN: 1532-0480
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.9270-9270
    Description: Each year more than 7 million people die from cardiac arrhythmias. Yet no robust solution exists today to detect such heart anomalies right at the moment they occur. The purpose of this study was to design a personalized health monitoring system that can detect early occurrences of arrhythmias from an individual’s electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. We first modelled the common causes of arrhythmias in the signal domain as a degradation of normal ECG beats to abnormal beats. Using the degradation models, we performed abnormal beat synthesis which created potential abnormal beats from the average normal beat of the individual. Finally, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was trained using real normal and synthesized abnormal beats. As a personalized classifier, the trained CNN can monitor ECG beats in real time for arrhythmia detection. Over 34 patients’ ECG records with a total of 63,341 ECG beats from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia benchmark database, we have shown that the probability of detecting one or more abnormal ECG beats among the first three occurrences is higher than 99.4% with a very low false-alarm rate.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization
    Description: This book explores multidimensional particle swarm optimization, a new optimization technique developed by the authors. The content is characterized by strong practical considerations, and the book is supported with fully documented source code for all applications presented, as well as many sample datasets.
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Artificial Intelligence (Incl. Robotics) ; Computational Intelligence ; Electrical Engineering ; Meteorology & Climatology ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642378454
    ISBN: 3642378455
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