Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Janzen, Christian  (17)
Type of Medium
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature, November 2018, Vol.563(7729), pp.121-125
    Description: Many evolutionarily distant pathogenic organisms have evolved similar survival strategies to evade the immune responses of their hosts. These include antigenic variation, through which an infecting organism prevents clearance by periodically altering the identity of proteins that are visible to the immune system of the host. Antigenic variation requires large reservoirs of immunologically diverse antigen genes, which are often generated through homologous recombination, as well as mechanisms to ensure the expression of one or very few antigens at any given time. Both homologous recombination and gene expression are affected by three-dimensional genome architecture and local DNA accessibility. Factors that link three-dimensional genome architecture, local chromatin conformation and antigenic variation have, to our knowledge, not yet been identified in any organism. One of the major obstacles to studying the role of genome architecture in antigenic variation has been the highly repetitive nature and heterozygosity of antigen-gene arrays, which has precluded complete genome assembly in many pathogens. Here we report the de novo haplotype-specific assembly and scaffolding of the long antigen-gene arrays of the model protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, using long-read sequencing technology and conserved features of chromosome folding. Genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) reveals a distinct partitioning of the genome, with antigen-encoding subtelomeric regions that are folded into distinct, highly compact compartments. In addition, we performed a range of analyses-Hi-C, fluorescence in situ hybridization, assays for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing and single-cell RNA sequencing-that showed that deletion of the histone variants H3.V and H4.V increases antigen-gene clustering, DNA accessibility across sites of antigen expression and switching of the expressed antigen isoform, via homologous recombination. Our analyses identify histone variants as a molecular link between global genome architecture, local chromatin conformation and antigenic variation.
    Keywords: Antigenic Variation -- Genetics ; Chromatin -- Genetics ; DNA, Protozoan -- Metabolism ; Genome -- Genetics ; Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(7), p.e0181884
    Description: Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan flagellate that is transmitted by tsetse flies into the mammalian bloodstream. The parasite has a huge impact on human health both directly by causing African sleeping sickness and indirectly, by infecting domestic cattle. The biology of trypanosomes involves some highly unusual, nuclear-localised processes. These include polycistronic transcription without classical promoters initiated from regions defined by histone variants, trans-splicing of all transcripts to the exon of a spliced leader RNA, transcription of some very abundant proteins by RNA polymerase I and antigenic variation, a switch in expression of the cell surface protein variants that allows the parasite to resist the immune system of its mammalian host. Here, we provide the nuclear proteome of procyclic Trypanosoma brucei, the stage that resides within the tsetse fly midgut. We have performed quantitative label-free mass spectrometry to score 764 significantly nuclear enriched proteins in comparison to whole cell lysates. A comparison with proteomes of several experimentally characterised nuclear and non-nuclear structures and pathways confirmed the high quality of the dataset: the proteome contains about 80% of all nuclear proteins and less than 2% false positives. Using motif enrichment, we found the amino acid sequence KRxR present in a large number of nuclear proteins. KRxR is a sub-motif of a classical eukaryotic monopartite nuclear localisation signal and could be responsible for nuclear localization of proteins in Kinetoplastida species. As a proof of principle, we have confirmed the nuclear localisation of six proteins with previously unknown localisation by expressing eYFP fusion proteins. While proteome data of several T. brucei organelles have been published, our nuclear proteome closes an important gap in knowledge to study trypanosome biology, in particular nuclear-related processes.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 06 October 2015, Vol.87(19), pp.9939-45
    Description: We introduce fragment ion patchwork quantification as a new mass spectrometry-based approach for the highly accurate quantification of site-specific acetylation degrees. This method combines (13)C1-acetyl derivatization on the protein level, proteolysis by low-specificity proteases and quantification on the fragment ion level. Acetylation degrees are determined from the isotope patterns of acetylated b and y ions. We show that this approach allows to determine site-specific acetylation degrees of all lysine residues for all core histones of Trypanosoma brucei. In addition, we demonstrate how this approach can be used to identify substrate sites of histone acetyltransferases.
    Keywords: Histones -- Chemistry ; Lysine -- Analysis ; Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP, January 2013, Vol.12(1), pp.172-9
    Description: Trypanosoma brucei developed a sophisticated life cycle to adapt to different host environments. Although developmental differentiation of T. brucei has been the topic of intensive research for decades, the mechanisms responsible for adaptation to different host environments are not well understood. We developed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture in trypanosomes to compare the proteomes of two different life cycle stages. Quantitative comparison of 4364 protein groups identified many proteins previously not known to be stage-specifically expressed. The identification of stage-specific proteins helps to understand how parasites adapt to different hosts and provides new insights into differences in metabolism, gene regulation, and cell architecture. A DEAD-box RNA helicase, which is highly up-regulated in the bloodstream form of this parasite and which is essential for viability and proper cell cycle progression in this stage is described as an example.
    Keywords: Life Cycle Stages ; Dead-Box RNA Helicases -- Metabolism ; Protozoan Proteins -- Metabolism ; Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei -- Growth & Development
    ISSN: 15359476
    E-ISSN: 1535-9484
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: eLife, 20 May 2014, Vol.3, pp.e02324
    Description: We have discovered a new mechanism of monoallelic gene expression that links antigenic variation, cell cycle, and development in the model parasite Trypanosoma brucei. African trypanosomes possess hundreds of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes, but only one is expressed from a telomeric expression site (ES) at any given time. We found that the expression of a second VSG alone is sufficient to silence the active VSG gene and directionally attenuate the ES by disruptor of telomeric silencing-1B (DOT1B)-mediated histone methylation. Three conserved expression-site-associated genes (ESAGs) appear to serve as signal for ES attenuation. Their depletion causes G1-phase dormancy and reversible initiation of the slender-to-stumpy differentiation pathway. ES-attenuated slender bloodstream trypanosomes gain full developmental competence for transformation to the tsetse fly stage. This surprising connection between antigenic variation and developmental progression provides an unexpected point of attack against the deadly sleeping sickness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02324.001.
    Keywords: Trypanosoma Brucei ; Antigenic Variation ; Developmental Reprogramming ; Expression Site Attenuation ; Monoallelic Expression ; Variant Surface Glycoprotein (Vsg) ; Antigenic Variation ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Genes, Protozoan ; Protozoan Proteins -- Genetics ; RNA, Protozoan -- Isolation & Purification ; Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 2050-084X
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 01 April 2017, Vol.13(4), p.e1006324
    Description: For persistent infections of the mammalian host, African trypanosomes limit their population size by quorum sensing of the parasite-excreted stumpy induction factor (SIF), which induces development to the tsetse-infective stumpy stage. We found that besides this cell density-dependent mechanism, there exists a second path to the stumpy stage that is linked to antigenic variation, the main instrument of parasite virulence. The expression of a second variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) leads to transcriptional attenuation of the VSG expression site (ES) and immediate development to tsetse fly infective stumpy parasites. This path is independent of SIF and solely controlled by the transcriptional status of the ES. In pleomorphic trypanosomes varying degrees of ES-attenuation result in phenotypic plasticity. While full ES-attenuation causes irreversible stumpy development, milder attenuation may open a time window for rescuing an unsuccessful antigenic switch, a scenario that so far has not been considered as important for parasite survival.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    In: Nature Communications, 2014, Vol.5
    Description: DOT1 enzymes are conserved methyltransferases that catalyse the methylation of lysine 79 on histone H3 (H3K79). Most eukaryotes contain one DOT1 enzyme, whereas African trypanosomes have two homologues, DOT1A and DOT1B, with different enzymatic activities. DOT1A mediates mono- and dimethylation of H3K76, the homologue of H3K79 in other organisms, whereas DOT1B additionally catalyses H3K76 trimethylation. However, it is unclear how these different enzymatic activities are achieved. Here we employ a trypanosomal nucleosome reconstitution system and structure-guided homology modelling to identify critical residues within and outside the catalytic centre that modulate product specificity. Exchange of these residues transfers the product specificity from one enzyme to the other, and reveals the existence of distinct regulatory domains adjacent to the catalytic centre. Our study provides the first evidence that a few crucial residues in DOT1 enzymes are sufficient to catalyse methyl-state-specific reactions. These results might also have far-reaching consequences for the functional understanding of homologous enzymes in higher eukaryotes.
    Keywords: DNA Mutational Analysis ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, 01 November 2012, Vol.40(20), pp.10302-11
    Description: Cell-cycle progression requires careful regulation to ensure accurate propagation of genetic material to the daughter cells. Although many cell-cycle regulators are evolutionarily conserved in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, novel regulatory mechanisms seem to have evolved. Here, we analyse the function of the histone methyltransferase DOT1A during cell-cycle progression. Over-expression of DOT1A generates a population of cells with aneuploid nuclei as well as enucleated cells. Detailed analysis shows that DOT1A over-expression causes continuous replication of the nuclear DNA. In contrast, depletion of DOT1A by RNAi abolishes replication but does not prevent karyokinesis. As histone H3K76 methylation has never been associated with replication control in eukaryotes before, we have discovered a novel function of DOT1 enzymes, which might not be unique to trypanosomes.
    Keywords: DNA Replication ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase -- Metabolism ; Histones -- Metabolism ; Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    In: Scientific Reports, 2016, Vol.6
    Description: Trypanosomes are masters of adaptation to different host environments during their complex life cycle. Large-scale proteomic approaches provide information on changes at the cellular level, and in a systematic way. However, detailed work on single components is necessary to understand the adaptation mechanisms on a molecular level. Here, we have performed a detailed characterization of a bloodstream form (BSF) stage-specific putative flagellar host adaptation factor Tb927.11.2400, identified previously in a SILAC-based comparative proteome study. Tb927.11.2400 shares 38% amino acid identity with TbFlabarin (Tb927.11.2410), a procyclic form (PCF) stage-specific flagellar BAR domain protein. We named Tb927.11.2400 TbFlabarin-like (TbFlabarinL), and demonstrate that it originates from a gene duplication event, which occurred in the African trypanosomes. TbFlabarinL is not essential for the growth of the parasites under cell culture conditions and it is dispensable for developmental differentiation from BSF to the PCF in vitro. We generated TbFlabarinL-specific antibodies, and showed that it localizes in the flagellum. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments together with a biochemical cell fractionation suggest a dual association of TbFlabarinL with the flagellar membrane and the components of the paraflagellar rod.
    Keywords: Flagella ; Gene Duplication ; Antibodies ; Amino Acids ; Parasites ; Cell Culture ; Immunoprecipitation ; Life Cycles;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 01 February 2016, Vol.12(2), p.e1005439
    Description: Developmental differentiation is a universal biological process that allows cells to adapt to different environments to perform specific functions. African trypanosomes progress through a tightly regulated life cycle in order to survive in different host environments when they shuttle between an insect vector and a vertebrate host. Transcriptomics has been useful to gain insight into RNA changes during stage transitions; however, RNA levels are only a moderate proxy for protein abundance in trypanosomes. We quantified 4270 protein groups during stage differentiation from the mammalian-infective to the insect form and provide classification for their expression profiles during development. Our label-free quantitative proteomics study revealed previously unknown components of the differentiation machinery that are involved in essential biological processes such as signaling, posttranslational protein modifications, trafficking and nuclear transport. Furthermore, guided by our proteomic survey, we identified the cause of the previously observed differentiation impairment in the histone methyltransferase DOT1B knock-out strain as it is required for accurate karyokinesis in the first cell division during differentiation. This epigenetic regulator is likely involved in essential chromatin restructuring during developmental differentiation, which might also be important for differentiation in higher eukaryotic cells. Our proteome dataset will serve as a resource for detailed investigations of cell differentiation to shed more light on the molecular mechanisms of this process in trypanosomes and other eukaryotes.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages